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# Science News - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

But in science the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to the man to whom the idea first occurs – Sir Francis Darwin. Science News.

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But in science the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to the man to whom the idea first occurs – Sir Francis Darwin

Science News
Writing Warm-Up: Working with Numbers
• Common Numbers
• Spell out common numbers under 10. "Use figures to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10" as long as the numbers below 10 do not express precise measurements and are not grouped with numbers above 10 (APA, 2009, p. 111).
• Spell out common fractions, common expressions, and centruries (one-half, Fourth of July, twentieth century).
• Spell out all numbers beginning sentences (Thirty days hath September . . .).
• To make plurals out of numbers, add s only, with no apostrophe (the 1950s).
• When numbers below 10 must be mixed with numbers above 10 in the same sentence they should be written as numerals. For example, write "the students trying out for the soccer team included 5 girls and 16 boys."

*** Use words and numerals with two numbers in series (five 4-point scales).

*** Use combinations of numerals and written numbers for large approximate sums (over 3 million people).

• Use numerals for numbers 10 and above, for exact statistical references, scores, sample sizes, and sums (multiplied by 3, or 5% of the sample).
• Use metric abbreviations with physical measure (4 km) but not when written out (many meters distant).
• Use the percent symbol (%) only with figures (5%) not with written numbers (five percent).
• Put a leading zero before decimal fractions less than one (e.g., 0.25 km), unless the fraction can never be greater than one, as with statistical probabilities (e.g., p < .01).
• Ordinal numbers follow the same rules as other numbers. Spell out ordinals below 10: first, second, . . . ninth. Use numerals for ordinals 10 and above: 10th, 43rd, 99th, and so on. Exception—the twentieth century.
Brainstorming
• What are 2-3 (or more) ethical questions pertinent to your field of study that you find interesting?
• When considering those questions, where do you fall ethically (which side)? (What research do you need to do to find out for sure?)
What makes a good ethical argument?Right versus right
• It is right to protect the endangered spotted owl in the old-growth forests of the American Northwest--and right to provide jobs for loggers.
• It is right to resist the importation of products made in developing nations to the detriment of the environment--and right to provide jobs, even at low wages, for citizens of those nations.
Workshop questions in groups of 3/4:

Each person will take turns explaining his/her question (or idea for a question) and what the main counterargument might be (if you know); Then you’ll solicit the questions that everyone in the group has.

• One way to do this is for each person in the group to write down questions for the presenter and give it to him/her. What would you want to know as a reader?

What do you do first?

Word web? Outline? List?

When do you write your thesis? First? Last? What helps get you there?

MIT Guide
• -Framing writing projects (35)
• -What is your goal … look at example on 38.

Ch. 4

• -Outlining
• -getting feedback (43) and perspective (50); we’ll be doing this on Thursday
• -first draft versus finished draft (47)
• -developing arguments (47)
Developing Arguments

One way to construct arguments:

1.) A problem or situation to be remedied

2.) A claim or thesis that says how to do this

3.) Give the background and establish how one might go about solving the problem

4.) Provide evidence to support your claim

5.) Discuss – weigh the pros and cons and how the pros ultimately outweigh the cons.

Homework
• 5 important points from Paul Murphy’s Form and the Essay
• We’ll be looking at two essays from Occassions: Dangers of Carbon Nanotubes and From Hoof to Hand: Antibiotic Use in Livestock and Antibiotic Resistance in Humans.