Blueprint reading for the machine trades sixth edition unit 2 dimensioning systems
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Blueprint Reading for the Machine Trades, Sixth Edition Unit 2: Dimensioning Systems. Russ Schultz and Larry Smith PowerPoint presentation created by LaVonne Vichlach. Dimensioning Systems. Four different systems of dimensioning used in U.S. and Canada Fractional inch Decimal inch

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Blueprint reading for the machine trades sixth edition unit 2 dimensioning systems

Blueprint Reading for the Machine Trades, Sixth Edition Unit 2: Dimensioning Systems

Russ Schultz and Larry Smith

PowerPoint presentation created by LaVonne Vichlach


Dimensioning systems
Dimensioning Systems

  • Four different systems of dimensioning used in U.S. and Canada

    • Fractional inch

    • Decimal inch

    • Dual dimensioning

    • SI Metric








Fractional dimensioning
Fractional Dimensioning

  • Always reduce a fraction to its lowest terms

  • If numerator is even number-it can be reduced

  • Begin your count from a major graduation close to the reading



Scale reading quiz 1
Scale Reading Quiz 1

Record the scale length identified by

  • 3/4

1


Scale reading quiz 11
Scale Reading Quiz 1

Record the scale length identified by

  • 1 5/8

2


Scale reading quiz 12
Scale Reading Quiz 1

Record the scale length identified by

  • 2 7/16

3


Scale reading quiz 13
Scale Reading Quiz 1

  • 3 3/16

Record the scale length identified by

4


Scale reading quiz 14
Scale Reading Quiz 1

  • 3 15/16

Record the scale length identified by

5


Scale reading quiz 15
Scale Reading Quiz 1

  • 13/16

Record the scale length identified by

6


Scale reading quiz 16
Scale Reading Quiz 1

  • 1 ¾

Record the scale length identified by

7


Scale reading quiz 17
Scale Reading Quiz 1

  • 2 11/16

Record the scale length identified by

8


Scale reading quiz 18
Scale Reading Quiz 1

  • 3 17/32

Record the scale length identified by

9


Scale reading quiz 19
Scale Reading Quiz 1

  • 3 31/32

Record the scale length identified by

10


Decimal scales
Decimal Scales

  • Subdivided into units of 1/10, 1/20, 1/50, or 1/100 in.

  • 1/50 is sufficient for most applications

  • With 50 increments to an inch each increment =.02 in.

  • Reading between increments-capable of determining closest .01 inch measurement


Decimal scales1
Decimal Scales

  • Closer measurements require using micrometer, vernier or dial calipers

  • Major graduations are accented by longer lines-usually every 1/10 in.

  • Popular scales graduation style has .04 and .06 increments slightly longer than .02 and .08

  • Reads faster, more recognizable






Scale reading quiz 2
Scale Reading Quiz 2

  • .80

Record the scale length identifiedby...

1


Scale reading quiz 21
Scale Reading Quiz 2

  • 1.60

Record the scale length identified by…

2


Scale reading quiz 22
Scale Reading Quiz 2

  • 2.50

Record the scale length identified by…

3


Scale reading quiz 23
Scale Reading Quiz 2

  • 3.32

Record the scale length identified by…

4


Scale reading quiz 24
Scale Reading Quiz 2

  • 3.86

Record the scale length identified by…

5


Decimal dimensioning
Decimal Dimensioning

  • Drawing may be dimensioned using two- or three-place decimals

  • Amount of tolerance is determined by number of decimal places


Decimal dimensioning1
Decimal Dimensioning

  • .50 may have tolerance of ± .01

  • .500 may have tolerance of ± .001

  • .5000 may have tolerance of ±.0001


Decimal dimensioning2
Decimal Dimensioning

  • Converting fractions to decimals-results in too many decimal places

  • Need to round off those numbers to desired places


Decimal dimensioning3
Decimal Dimensioning

  • Rule #1-When the figure following the last digit to be retained is greater than 5---increase the last number by one

    • .016 becomes .02

    • .047 becomes .05

    • .078 becomes .08


Decimal dimensioning4
Decimal Dimensioning

  • Rule #2-When the figure following the last digit to be retained is less than 5---retain the last number

    • .031 becomes .03

    • .062 becomes .06

    • .093 becomes .09


Decimal dimensioning5
Decimal Dimensioning

  • Rule #3-When the figure following the last digit to be retained is exactly 5 and the figure to be retained is odd---increase the last number by one

    • .375 becomes .38

    • .875 becomes .88


Decimal dimensioning6
Decimal Dimensioning

  • Rule #4-When the figure following the last digit to be retained is exactly 5 and the figure to be retained is even---retain the last number

    • .125 becomes .12

    • .625 becomes .62


Decimal dimensioning7
Decimal Dimensioning

  • Rule #3 and #4 are different

    • Established to even numbers as often as possible

    • Even numbers are preferred

    • Decimal numbers divided by two-e.g.-diameter/2 = radius-----results will contain same number of decimal places



Decimal rounding quiz
Decimal Rounding Quiz

.11

  • .109 =

  • .125 =

  • .156 =

  • .234 =

  • .438 =

  • .547 =

  • .562 =

.12

.16

.23

.44

.55

.56


Decimal rounding quiz1
Decimal Rounding Quiz

.64

  • .641 =

  • .797 =

  • .875 =

  • 1.056 =

  • 1.672 =

  • 2.205 =

  • 2.454 =

.80

.88

1.06

1.67

2.20

2.45


Decimal rounding quiz2
Decimal Rounding Quiz

3.34

  • 3.335 =

  • 3.767 =

  • 5.555 =

  • 6.665 =

  • 7.045 =

  • 8.885 =

3.77

5.56

6.66

7.04

8.88


Metric dimensioning
Metric Dimensioning

  • Metric increment of measure is millimeter

  • Will be noted if different

  • Dual dimensioning system-SI Metric-used in U.S. and Canada

  • Convert a metric dimension to inches by multiplying it by .03937


Metric dimensioning1
Metric Dimensioning

  • Conversion charts are available to provide converted dimensions

  • Metric scales are available and can be used-eliminating need for conversion


Metric dimensioning2
Metric Dimensioning

  • Metric scales

    • Have graduations every millimeter of half-millimeter

    • Designated “mm” or “1/2 mm”

    • Every fifth millimeter is accentuated by a longer line

    • Every tenth millimeter is identified by a number



Scale reading quiz 3
Scale Reading Quiz 3

Record the scale length identified by

  • 20 mm

1


Scale reading quiz 31
Scale Reading Quiz 3

Record the scale length identified by

2

  • 35 mm


Scale reading quiz 32
Scale Reading Quiz 3

Record the scale length identified by

3

  • 51 mm


Scale reading quiz 33
Scale Reading Quiz 3

  • 77.5 mm

Record the scale length identified by

4


Scale reading quiz 34
Scale Reading Quiz 3

  • 93.5 mm

Record the scale length identified by

5


Blueprints
Blueprints

  • Blueprinting-Term can be interpreted as

    • Drawing

    • Picture

  • Contains information

    • Required sizes

    • Tolerances

    • Essential requirements

    • Notes and instructions




Engineering drawings
Engineering Drawings part?

  • Original drawing made by drafter or engineer

  • Prints are referred to as engineering drawings

  • Also referred to as blueprints (more common term)


Engineering drawings1
Engineering Drawings part?

  • Standardized drawings

    • “A” size is 8 ½ x 11 inches

    • “B” size is 11 x 17 inches

    • “C” size is 17 x 22 inches

    • “D” size is 22 x 34 inches

    • “E” size is 34 x 44 inches



Engineering drawings3

What are the basic dimensions of the A-size drawing? part?

Engineering Drawings

8 ½ X 11

2. If C-size is twice as large as B-size, how much larger is it than A-size?

4X


Engineering drawings4

Will an E-size print fold to fit in the same envelope with an A-size print?

A2

Engineering Drawings

YES

4. What metric size is twice as large as the A3 size?


Engineering drawings5

Are the A4 metric size and the A inch size exactly the same? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

NO

Engineering Drawings


Title blocks
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Each drawing contains a Title Block

    • Drawing number is most prominent lettering in title block

    • Lettered larger to stand out

    • Scale determines the size of the object drafted


Title blocks1
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Mechanical drawings may be reduced to

    • Half size

    • Quarter size

    • One eighth size


Title blocks2
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Mechanical drawings may be enlarged

    • Double

    • Four times

    • Ten times


Title blocks3
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Half scale---1/2, 1:2, or ½”=1”

  • Twice scale-2/1, 2:1, 2-1, 2”=1” or 2X

  • Arrangement of numerals indicates relationship


Title blocks4
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Refer to scale as the “Do Scale”

    • “D” stands for the drawing

    • “O” stands for the object

    • Sale of 1:2 means

      • The drawing is 1 inch

      • Object is 2 inches

    • A “Do Scale” of 2:1 means

      • The drawing is 2 inches

      • The object is one inch or one half the drawing size


Title blocks5
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Title blocks6
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Title blocks7
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Title blocks8
Title Blocks (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Drawing notes
Drawing Notes (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Local notes-apply to specific item or area

    • Use leaders

    • Direct notes to point of application

  • General notes apply to whole drawing or product

    • Machining

    • Heat treat

    • Material

    • Tolerances


Drawing notes1
Drawing Notes (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Abbreviations are used in notes

  • Keep them brief


Drawing notes general

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

METRIC UNITS ARE MILLIMETERS

FILS & RNDS ARE .12R

PART SYM ABOUT CL

Drawing Notes-General


Drawing notes local

5 HOLES EQL SP ON 6.000BC (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.344 DR, .500 CBORE, .30 DP

.281 DR, 82° CSK, .53 DIA

Drawing Notes-Local


Drawing notes quiz
Drawing Notes Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What type of note applies to an entire drawing?

General


Drawing notes quiz1
Drawing Notes Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What type of line is used with local notes?

Leader


Drawing notes quiz2
Drawing Notes Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Where do general notes appear on a drawing?

Above the title block


Drawing notes quiz3
Drawing Notes Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Interpret the abbreviations SYM and CL used in the third general note.

Symmetrical and centerline


Drawing notes quiz4
Drawing Notes Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Interpret the abbreviations DR and CSK used in the third local note.

Drill and countersink


Single view drawings
Single-View Drawings (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Sometimes adequate to describe object

  • Material thickness is listed


Detail drawings
Detail Drawings (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • “Production drawings” and “working drawings” are general terms

  • Includes all types of engineering drawings


Detail drawings1
Detail Drawings (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Detail drawings include

    • Sufficient number of views

    • Dimensions

    • Notes

    • Other pertinent information


Centerlines
Centerlines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Centerlines1
Centerlines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Intersecting centerlines drawn through each hole

  • Used for location-centerlines are extended outside view and dimensions are added

  • Radii are the same-often share a common axis-common design practice


Diameters and radii
Diameters and Radii (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Diameters and radii1
Diameters and Radii (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Internationally recognized symbol for diameter

  • Use in place of the abbreviation DIA

  • Number of holes indicated


Diameters and radii2
Diameters and Radii (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Overall dimensions can be calculated

  • Remaining material around hole can be calculated


Diameters and radii3
Diameters and Radii (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Remaining material around hole can be calculated


Answer the questions
Answer the questions (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Thermostat gasket
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

1. What is the part number?

11A001


Thermostat gasket1
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

2. What is the name of the part?

Thermostat gasket


Thermostat gasket2
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

3. What is the drawing size? (A, B, or C)

A


Thermostat gasket3
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

4. What scale is the drawing?

1:1


Thermostat gasket4
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

5. Use words to explain the answer to question 4.

Actual size


Thermostat gasket5
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

6. How thick is the part?

.06


Thermostat gasket6
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

7. Is the part symmetrical?

Yes


Thermostat gasket7
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

8. Which system of dimensioning was used? (Refer to page 21.)

Decimal


Thermostat gasket8
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

9. What is the fractional equivalent of the center hole size? (Refer to the equivalency chart, page 25.)

2 3/16


Thermostat gasket9
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the fractional equivalent of the mounting hole spacing? (Refer to the equivalency chart, page 25.)

3 5/8


Thermostat gasket10
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

11. Calculate the longest overall dimension of the part.

4.24


Thermostat gasket11
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

12. Calculate the overall dimension of the part (height.)

2.88


Thermostat gasket12
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

13. Calculate the material remaining between the large hole and the nearest outside edge.

.345


Thermostat gasket13
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

14. Calculate the material remaining between the small hole and the nearest outside edge.

.155


Thermostat gasket14
Thermostat Gasket (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

15. Calculate the material remaining between the large hole and the nearest small hole.

.56


Break lines
Break Lines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Permits removal of a portion of view

  • Paper size is smaller

  • Drawing scale can get smaller

  • Portion removed must be uniform in shape


Break lines1
Break Lines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Drawing is full size and does not require a “B” size drawing


Break lines2
Break Lines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Break lines3
Break Lines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Break lines4
Break Lines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Break lines5
Break Lines (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Typical dimensions
Typical Dimensions (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Entered after a dimension

  • Means all other similar dimensions are same as one marked “TYP”

  • Eliminates repetition of dimensions

  • Saves on drawing space


Symmetry
Symmetry (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Indicated by note

  • Indicated by view’s centerline carrying abbreviation


Exercise
Exercise (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter dimensions for the letters provided.


Bottom plate
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

A

1.50


Bottom plate1
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

B

3.60


Bottom plate2
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

C

.30


Bottom plate3
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

D

1.47


Bottom plate4
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

E

6.10


Bottom plate5
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

F

2.00


Bottom plate6
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

G

.19


Bottom plate7
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

H

.57


Bottom plate8
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

I

.86


Bottom plate9
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

J

.68


Bottom plate10
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

K

.10


Bottom plate11
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

L

.46


Bottom plate12
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

1. What type of line was drawn to indicate symmetry?

Centerline


Bottom plate13
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

2. What word is abbreviated TYP?

Typical


Bottom plate14
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

3. What is the thickness of the plate?

.25


Bottom plate15
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

4. How many round holes does the plate contain?

10


Bottom plate16
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

5. What is the fractional equivalent of the small hole diameter?

9/32


Bottom plate17
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

6. How much material remains between a .62 Dia. hole and the nearest outside edge?

.25


Bottom plate18
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

7. How much material remains between a .28 Dia. hole and the nearest outside edge?

.16


Bottom plate19
Bottom Plate (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

8. Calculate the longest overall dimension of the plate.

6.76


Tolerances
Tolerances (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Tolerances are assigned to every dimension

  • Assign maximum acceptable deviation-tolerance

  • Shown with dimension

  • Shown in the title block as a general tolerance


Tolerances1
Tolerances (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • General tolerances commonly assigned using decimals

  • Decimal dimension and tolerance have same number of places

  • Most commonly expressed bilaterally-not always equal in both directions


Tolerances2
Tolerances (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Tolerance quiz
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

1. What is the two place decimal tolerance in Example A?

 .03


Tolerance quiz1
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

2. What is the tolerance for drilled holes in Example A?

+ .010

-.002


Tolerance quiz2
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

3. What is the three-place decimal tolerance in Example B?

 .004


Tolerance quiz3
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

4. What is the fractional tolerance in Example C?

 1/64


Tolerance quiz4
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

5. What is the total tolerance for the two-place decimal inch in Example A?

 .03


Tolerance quiz5
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the angular tolerance in Example C?

 030’


Tolerance quiz6
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the total tolerance for the three-place decimal inch in Example B?

 .004


Tolerance quiz7
Tolerance Quiz (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the total tolerance for drilled holes in Example A?

+ .010

-.002


Bolt circles
Bolt Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Three or more holes are positioned around a common center

  • Located angularly on a circular centerline


Bolt circles1
Bolt Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Dimension of bolt circle appears

    • Inside of diagonal dimension line

    • With abbreviation BC after hole data

    • Holes may be equally spaced

    • Abbreviation EQL SP follows quantity in local note

    • Divide 360 by number of holes

    • One of the holes is on vertical or horizontal centerline


Bolt circles2
Bolt Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Inside of diagonal dimension line


Bolt circles3
Bolt Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Inside of diagonal dimension line


Bolt circles4
Bolt Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • With abbreviation BC after hole data-Holes may be equally spaced

  • Abbreviation EQL SP follows quantity in local note


Bolt circles5
Bolt Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Holes may be located coordinately

  • Use only vertical or horizontal dimensions


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How thick is the shim?

.020


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Is the shim symmetrical?

No


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Are the bolt circles concentric?

Yes


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How many holes are in the shim?

8


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the .250 Dia. holes?

.005


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the .500 Dia. holes?

.008


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the 1.000 Dia. hole?

.010


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the bolt circles?

.010


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the radii?

.02


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How much material is between the 5/8” hole and the nearest outside edge?

.1875


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How far apart angularly are the three .500 Dia. holes?

120°


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How far apart angularly are a .250 Dia. hole and the nearest .500 Dia. hole?

60°


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How far apart angularly are a .250 Dia. hole and the farthest .500 Dia. hole?

180°


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How far apart angularly is the 5/8” hole from the nearest ½” hole?

30°


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the angular tolerance for the hole locations?

±0°30’


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

What is the dimension for A?

1.15


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

What is the dimension for B?

1.125


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

What is the dimension for C?

.625


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

What is the dimension for D?

.525


Shim (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

What is the dimension for E?

.275


Maximum least material condition
Maximum & Least Material Condition (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • MMC

  • Feature of size contains the maximum material within assigned tolerances


Maximum least material condition1
Maximum & Least Material Condition (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • For a shaft

    • At MMC when tolerance is added to its size dimension (.760)

    • At LMC when tolerance is subtracted from it size dimension (.740)


Maximum least material condition2
Maximum & Least Material Condition (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Internal feature-hole-is at MMC when it is at its smallest size

Sizes are exaggerated. NTS-Not To Scale


Maximum least material condition3
Maximum & Least Material Condition (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Internal feature-hole-is at LMC when it is at its largest size

Sizes are exaggerated. NTS-Not To Scale


Maximum least material condition4
Maximum & Least Material Condition (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • On any part

    • All surfaces are features (they are not measurable-size)

    • For LMC and MMC, the feature must have a size dimension

    • Must be associated with tow opposing elements or two opposed parallel surfaces

    • Must be measurable


X (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


1.005 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.995


3.005 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

2.995


1.30 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

1.32


.349 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.339


.30 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.32


.66 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.64


X (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


X (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


.905 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.895


1.91 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

1.89


X (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


.258 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.248


.370 (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

.380


Allowance
Allowance (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Minimum clearance between mating parts

  • Maximum interference between mating parts

  • Calculate by subtracting MMC of shaft from MMC of hole


Allowance1
Allowance (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • When shaft’s MMC is smaller than hole’s MMC-positive allowance-clearance

  • When shaft’s MMC is larger than hole’s MMC-negative allowance-interference


Allowance2
Allowance (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Positive or negative-allowance is always the tightest possible fit between mating parts


Allowance3
Allowance (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Use the formula for calculating allowance:

MMC Hole - MMC Shaft = Allowance


Allowance4
Allowance (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC Hole =.999

-MMC Shaft A =.998

Allowance =.001 (positive)


Allowance5
Allowance (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC Hole =.999

-MMC Shaft B =1.004

Allowance =-.005 (negative)


Mmc allowance quiz

What is the MMC of hole “D?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.748


Mmc allowance quiz1

What is the MMC of Shaft “C?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.745


Mmc allowance quiz2

What is the allowance between “C” and “D?’ (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.003


Mmc allowance quiz3

Is the allowance positive or negative? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Positive


Mmc allowance quiz4

Is it a clearance or interference fit? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Clearance


Mmc allowance quiz5

What is the MMC of hole “F?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.743


Mmc allowance quiz6

What is the MMC of shaft “E?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.747


Mmc allowance quiz7

What is the allowance between “E” and “F?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

-.004


Mmc allowance quiz8

Is the allowance positive or negative? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Negative


Mmc allowance quiz9

Is it a clearance or interference fit? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Interference


Mmc allowance quiz10

What is the LMC of hole “D?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.752


Mmc allowance quiz11

What is the LMC of Shaft “C?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.735


Mmc allowance quiz12

What is the allowance between “C” and “D?’ (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.017


Mmc allowance quiz13

Is the allowance positive or negative? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Positive


Mmc allowance quiz14

Is it a clearance or interference fit? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Clearance


Mmc allowance quiz15

What is the LMC of hole “F?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.745


Mmc allowance quiz16

What is the LMC of shaft “E?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.743


Mmc allowance quiz17

What is the allowance between “E” and “F?” (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

.002


Mmc allowance quiz18

Is the allowance positive or negative? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Positive


Mmc allowance quiz19

Is it a clearance or interference fit? (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

MMC/Allowance Quiz

Clearance


Arcs and circles
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • When an arc is less than a complete circle-dimension it by radius

  • May have a definite center-e.g.. 1.00R & 4.50R in Dwg. 11A004

  • May float-run tangent with other arcs or lines-e.g. .75R same print


Arcs and circles1
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Radial dimension not used for circles or diameters

  • Radial dimension doubles permit greater variation


Arcs and circles2
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • E.g. 1.000 DIA with .01 yields dimension between .99 and 1.01 DIA

  • .50R with .01 would permit diametric dimensions between .98 and 1.02 DIA


Arcs and circles3
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)


Arcs and circles4
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Is the print drawn to (a) half-size or (b) twice-size?

(a) half-size


Arcs and circles5
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the thickness of the spacer?

.500


Arcs and circles6
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Interpret the abbreviation CRS used in the title block?

Cold-Rolled Steel


Arcs and circles7
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How many holes does the spacer contain?

10


Arcs and circles8
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Is the spacer symmetrical about the vertical and horizontal centerline?

Vertical


Arcs and circles9
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the angular dimension between each small hole?

60


Arcs and circles10
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the angular dimension between each large hole?

120


Arcs and circles11
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What tolerance is assigned to the angular spacing of the drilled holes?

 030’


Arcs and circles12
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the bolt circles?

 .01


Arcs and circles13
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the center hole diameter?

 .005


Arcs and circles14
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the MMC of the center hole?

4.995


Arcs and circles15
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the tolerance on the drilled holes?

+.010

-.002


Arcs and circles16
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the MMC of the .688 holes?

.686


Arcs and circles17
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the overall dimension along the horizontal CL?

9.00


Arcs and circles18
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the overall dimension along the vertical CL?

10.50


Arcs and circles19
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “A.”

.50


Arcs and circles20
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “B.”

.531


Arcs and circles21
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “C.”

1.00


Arcs and circles22
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “D.”

.656


Arcs and circles23
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “E.”

.687


Arcs and circles24
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “A.”

.81


Arcs and circles25
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “B.”

2.32


Arcs and circles26
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “C.”

.15


Arcs and circles27
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “D.”

3.28


Arcs and circles28
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “E.”

7.26


Arcs and circles29
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “F.”

1.72


Arcs and circles30
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “G.”

1.58


Arcs and circles31
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “H.”

.42


Arcs and circles32
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “I.”

30°


Arcs and circles33
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “J.”

3.98


Arcs and circles34
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “K.”

.01


Arcs and circles35
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “L.”

.20


Arcs and circles36
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “M.”

.19


Arcs and circles37
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “N.”

.12


Arcs and circles38
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

Enter the dimension for the letter “0.”

.30


Arcs and circles39
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How much material remains between a .250 hole and the outside edge?

.225


Arcs and circles40
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • How much material remains between a .220 hole and the outside edge?

.19


Arcs and circles41
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • Are the .200 holes located in the exact center between ID and OD? (Calculate this.)

No


Arcs and circles42
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the MMC of the center hole?

2.555


Arcs and circles43
Arcs And Circles (Use 1in = 25.4 mm or 1mm = .03937 in. to compare)

  • What is the MMC of the .250 holes?

.248


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