Part I. Review
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 14

Part I. Review Why Did the U.S. Turn to Diem? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 63 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Part I. Review Why Did the U.S. Turn to Diem? Vietnam Seemed Like a Lost Cause for the west after Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Conference Nevertheless, U.S. increasingly saw Vietnam in the light of the Cold War

Download Presentation

Part I. Review Why Did the U.S. Turn to Diem?

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Part i review why did the u s turn to diem

Part I. Review

Why Did the U.S. Turn to Diem?

Vietnam Seemed Like a Lost Cause for the west after Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Conference

Nevertheless, U.S. increasingly saw Vietnam in the light of the Cold War

After China and Korea, the H-Bomb (and later the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Red Scare, McCarthyism, etc.), the U.S. felt that it couldn’t afford to give an inch to Communism anywhere

Ho is very popular and Bao Dai’s was all used up as a rallying symbol for a southern anti-communist rallying point

U.S. turned to Diem

Diem had a lot of good qualities

Anti-communist

Patriotic

Brave  fought Binh Xuyen

Catholic

Why did the U.S. abandon Diem?

Nepotism/cronyism

Hard headed  rigged elections, used U.S. money as he saw fit

Unknown to Vietnamese

Refused real land reform

Pissed off the Buddhists (film clip?)

Fall of Diem

U.S., in frustration, withdrew support from Diem

The Coup

Organized by the ARVN military  generals loyal to Diem were killed

Defense of Diem’s palace despite the fact that Diem and Nhu have slipped out to another location

Diem turns himself in  he his shot

Was the U.S. responsible for his death?

Hard to say

JFK seemed upset

And yet, no plans to get Diem out of the country

Part II. LBJ’s Careful Handling (pre-Election) of Vietnam

U.S. Cold Warriors in Government Increasingly Feel that Southern Vietnam Can Only Be Held BY U.S. Troops

‘VC Outposts’ Reading

‘Poor ARVN Performance’ Reading

JFK’s Assassination

Just as the American media started to delve into Diem’s assasination, trying to work out just how it had all happened, JFK was assassinated

One of the greatest media frenzies in world history blanked Diem’s assassination, and to some degree Vietnam in general, from the public’s mind

LBJ Took Over, A Bit Over a Year Short of the NextPresidential Election

His first priority  win election, so that he is a ‘legitimate’ president

But what to do about Vietnam?

“I’m not going to be the President who saw Southeast Asia got the way of China.”

“We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.”

Perhaps the Vietnam issue can be moved to the back burner until after the election?

Problem #1 for LBJ the South Vietnamese government has become a game of musical chairs

Problem #2 for LBJ  his Republican opponent (Barry Goldwater has decided to make Vietnam a prominent election issue

LBJ’s Solutions

Solution #1  Write Up a Request that Can be Passed to Congress Asking for war powers, but don’t give it to them yet. Be prepared to look strong.

Solution #2  Increase the # of advisors going to Vietnam

Then, a decisive event… !!!

HansenName ____________ Vietnam Period ______The Rise and Fall of Diem and LBJ’s Careful Handling (Pre-Election) of Vietnam


Part i review why did the u s turn to diem

Part I. Review

Why Did the U.S. Turn to Diem?

Vietnam Seemed Like a Lost Cause for the west after ____________ and the ______________Geneva Conference

Nevertheless, the U.S. increasingly saw Vietnam in the light of the __________________________

After ___________ and Korea, the H-Bomb (and later the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Red Scare, McCarthyism, etc.), the U.S. felt that it couldn’t afford to give an inch to ___________ anywhere

Ho was very popular and _______________ was all used up as a southern anti-communist rallying point

U.S. turned to Diem

Diem had a lot of good qualities

Anti-_________________

Patriotic

Brave  fought Binh Xuyen

Catholic

Why did the U.S. abandon Diem?

Nepotism/cronyism

Hard headed  rigged _____________, used U.S. money ____________________

______________ to Vietnamese

Refused real ____________reform

Pissed off the Buddhists (film clip?)

Strategic Hamlets were a disaster

Fall of Diem

U.S., in frustration, withdrew support from Diem

The Coup

Organized by the ________________  generals loyal to Diem were ____________

Defense of Diem’s palace despite the fact that Diem and Nhu _________________________________________________

Diem turns himself in  _______________________

Was the U.S. ____________________ for his death?

Hard to say

JFK seemed ____________ when he heard the news

And yet, no plans as part of coup for what to do with Diem once _______________________

Part II. New Stuff LBJ’s Careful Handling (pre-election) of Vietnam

U.S. Cold Warriors in Government Increasingly Felt that Southern Vietnam Could Only Be Held ________________

‘VC Outposts’ Reading ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________

‘Poor ARVN Performance’ Reading _________________________ _______________________________________________________

JFK’s Assassination

Just as the American media started to delve into Diem’s assassination, trying to work out _________________________ __________________________________, JFK was assassinated

One of the greatest ________________ in world history blanked Diem’s assassination, and to some degree ________________, from the public’s mind

LBJ Took Over, A Bit Over ____________of the Next Presidential Election

His first priority  win election, so that he is a ____________ ___________________________________________________

But what to do about Vietnam?

“I’m not going to be the President who saw Southeast Asia got the way of ____________.”

“We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what _____________________ ______________________________________.”

Perhaps the Vietnam issue can be moved to the __________ until after the election?

Problem #1 for LBJ the South Vietnamese government has become a game of ___________________

Problem #2 for LBJ  his Republican opponent (_____________ has decided to make Vietnam a prominent election issue

“Make no bones of this. Don’t try to sweep it under the rug. We are at war in Vietnam. And yet, the President, who is the Commander in Chief of our forces, refuses to say, refuses to say, mind you, whether or not ________ ____________________________________________…”

LBJ’s Short Term Solutions

Solution #1  Write Up a Request that Can be Passed to Congress Asking for ____________, but don’t give it to them yet. Be prepared to look strong.

Solution #2  Increase the # of ________________ going to Vietnam

Then, a decisive event… !!!

HansenName ____________ Vietnam Period ______The Rise and Fall of Diem and LBJ’s Careful Handling (Pre-Election) of Vietnam (Note-Taking Guide)


Part i review why did the u s turn to diem

  • Something old that I forgot to mention- Geneva Conference--- Chinese kind of sold North Vietnamese out to avoid a costly war with the U.S. (based on the number of Chinese lost in the Korean War)

  • Diem is assassinated- musical chairs government…

  • JFK is assassinated… LBJ picks up on his policy of not losing but committing American troops either… (show two quotes… we cannot be beaten by force of arms… “I’m not going to send American boys over to Asia” ,

  • LBJ v Goldwater… LBJ craves election in his own right… Goldwater attacks him on Vietnam… there are 16k American advisors in Vietnam and lots of $ (figures???) (Daisy cartoon)

  • LBJ wins…

  • After victory, he is frustrated with ARVN performance against the VC…. Countryside in the south is getting less and less safe… Ho has been improving the Ho Chi Minh trail so that supplies and men can come down more easily… (Bright and Shining Lie reading about reasons for American frustration)

  • LBJ wants to be able to fight in the war, but he’s hamstrung by the need to have a declaration of war that would be a huge public referendum on the war… writes up a resolution trying to give himself war powers from congress, but then sits on it…

  • Gulf of Tonkin incident…

  • Impact of American money on the country (Bright and Shining Lie reading)

  • Hearts and Minds films…

  • Battle of Ia Drange…

  • Some of the uniquely American ways of fighting the war… (Helicopter attacks, napalm, Agent Orange, bomb VC back to the stone age…


Hansen name vietnam per lecture guide coup d diem to gulf of tonkin resolution

U.S. Support for Diem is Withdrawn

South Vietnamese Gov’t Unstable

Kennedy  Johnson

“I’m not going to be the President who saw Southeast Asia got the way of China.”

“We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves.”

4. Lesson of Appeasement v Korean War

“I have asked the commanding general, General Westmoreland, what more he needs to meet this mounting aggression. He has told me. And we will meet his needs. We cannot be defeated by force of arms. We will stand in Vietnam."

5. LBJ v Goldwater

Daisy cartoon-

6. American tries to beef up ARVN…

helicopter tactics should bring success where the French failed…

HansenName _____________Vietnam Per __________ Lecture Guide- Coup d’Diem to Gulf of Tonkin Resolution


Part i review why did the u s turn to diem

7. ARVN weakness…

8. Growing Problems for the North Vietnamese- Sino/Soviet Split

9. Growing Problems for the North Vietnamese- The long haul…

10. Ho Chi Minh Trail

11. As the election approaches, Johnson must deal with Declaration of War issue

12. Gulf of Tonkin Incident/Resolution


Coup d diem

Coup d’Diem

  • Why does the coup happen?

  • Defense of an empty palace

  • Diem is murdered in the end

  • Who has Diem’s blood on their hands?


After effects of the coup d diem

After-Effects of the Coup d’Diem

  • Many coups in a row… seven in the next year alone

  • U.S. has blood on its hands


Part i review why did the u s turn to diem

Craves presidential legitimacy


Appeasement v korean war

Appeasement v Korean War

VS


Part i review why did the u s turn to diem

  • U.S. withdrew support from Diem. Although U.S. government was fairly unanimous in withdrawing their support, there seems to have been shock among some members of the U.S. government that Diem was killed. Kennedy for example, seemed very shocked. At the same time, Henry Cabot Lodge, the U.S. ambassador to Vietnam, saw the coup as a success. The fact that we were supplying money for Diem and then didn’t make a big fuss over his murder definitely makes us appear complicit in the murder.

  • 7 governments in 1964 alone

  • Kennedy killed while on parade in Texas. There was a huge inquiry into what happened, headed by the head of the Supreme Court, Earl Warren…thus the Warren Commission. Eventually determined that there was a lone gunman. There seems to be some evidence that there were several gunmen. Some have even suggested that Kennedy’s refusal to commit large #s of troops to Vietnam played a factor, but there isn’t much evidence. Lyndon Johnson took over.

  • Lyndon Johnson was a Dem. and his great dream was progressive legislation to help minorities, poor, etc. He talked about the fact that he felt his hands were tied because if he focused no his domestic goals he would be crucified as being soft on communism, whereas if he dealt with Vietnam, he would have to give up his real dream of the Great Society.

  • Lessons of WWII- that if the allied forces had moved against Hitler when they had the chance, then WWII might have been avoided. This lesson applied to Communism and lent credence to the argument that America had to be tough.

  • U.S. was really committed now to hold the line in Vietnam. However, they were getting increasingly frustrated. They had to go through the South Vietnamese government. It was not only corrupt, but it was now changing every few months. The villagers were increasingly refusing to listen to it.

  • The continually corrupt government was gaining almost zero American support. The ‘agroville’ or ‘strategic hamlet’ plan had been an utter failure and the Vietcong had managed to destroy these cities and the Vietnamese had gone home. The South Vietnamese didn’t even control areas several kms away from Saigon. While Johnson’s advisors who went to Vietnam publicly said that all was well.. Privately they told him that the situation was a mess.

  • Soviet Union and China publicly encourage wars of liberation (communist revolutions in non-aligned countries). Privately, however, they worry about a costly war with the United States. Neither China nor Russia is wealthy and the Chinese lost a million men in the Korean War against largely American forces. They aren’t interested in doing this again. Also, China and the USSR stop getting along. Both China and the Soviet Union were mainly interested in their own interests, and in some respects they were willing to give the North Vietnamese enough support to continue to sap the Americans money and effort, while not giving too much in case they themselves became committed ot the fight.

  • Vietnamese were beginning to realize that the Americans were in this thing for the long haul and that limited guerilla action, meant to topple the Saigon regime wasn’t enough. With Diem gone, it was harder to mobilize Vietcong action, and the Northern leaders under Ho Chi Minh realized that they were going to have to do more than just encourage their southern compatriots.

  • Trail to bring supplies south. It had been an ancient network of trails used by traders. It ran through the jungle and went through Cambodia and Laos. Almost impossible to see, even if one flew right over it in a helicopter. It wasn’t just one trail, it was a series of trails, which made it hard to bomb. Plans were made to turn it into a much more sophisticated method of travel. It Had underground hospitals, fuel depots, supply spots, etc. Was extremely difficult to walk…diseases, etc.

  • Johnson becomes convinced that if he is going to ‘win’ in Vietnam, he is going to have to do it with American forces, not by relying on the South Vietnamese. The Constitution only allows Congress to declare war. This is a pain for a president because it opens the whole thing up to debate and the American public gets very interested. Increasingly, presidents have found ways to get around this problem. Call a war a ‘police action’. The problem is…you have to go to Congress for money. So why not get them to write you a blank check?

  • I will do this one from memory.


List of quotes that students must explain

List of quotes that students must explain…

  • “He was always willing to fight to the last Vietnamese.” Pham Van Dong regarding Mao

  • “I knew from the start that I was bound to be crucified either way I moved. If I left the woman I really loved in order to get involved with that bitch of a war on the other side of the world, then I would lose everything at home.” Johnson about being caught between a fire and a hot place

  • “We would no longer carry supplies…on our backs and shoulders, like ants filling anthills” North Vietnamese soldier talking about the renovation of the Ho Chi Minh trail

  • “To overthrow a government that was progressing fairly satisfactorily seemed like a violent and disorderly procedure” U.S. ambassador to Vietnam talking about the 3rd coup in 1964

  • “Therefore, our side knows how to do it. We have the means with which to do it. We simply need to do it.” U.S. advisor talking about “Americanizing” the fighting.

  • “…show all of Southeast Asia…that we will take strong measures…” Johnson advisor talking about why the line should be held in Vietnam.

  • “Say, for instance, that we hand them a plan to distribute ten thousand radios to villages so that peasants can listen to Saigon propaganda broadcasts. They respond enthusiastically, and we deliver the radios. A few months later, when we inquire, they tell us what we want to hear: peasants are being converted to the government cause. We’re winning the war. But what has really happened? Have all the radios reached the villages, or have half of them been sold on the black market? Are the peasants listening to Saigon or Hanoi? We don’t know.” U.S. official in Vietnam talking about the difficulty in operating through South Vietnamese proxies.

  • “I suffer to see the war go on…yet our people are determined to struggle.” Prime Minister Pham Van Dong


Part i review why did the u s turn to diem

Hansen Name _________Vietnam Per _______Explaining Quotes Based on Your Understanding of the Diem to Tonkin LectureDirections- Explain who would have said the following quotes (you don’t need an exact name…Vietcong soldier, or LBJ advisor would be fine). Then you need to explain what this person is talking about. Please be sure to make it clear that you know what you are talking about!!!

  • “He was always willing to fight to the last Vietnamese.”

  • “I knew from the start that I was bound to be crucified either way I moved. If I left the woman I really loved in order to get involved with that bitch of a war on the other side of the world, then I would lose everything at home.” Johnson about being caught between a fire and a hot place

  • “We would no longer carry supplies…on our backs and shoulders, like ants filling anthills”

  • “To overthrow a government that was progressing fairly satisfactorily seemed like a violent and disorderly procedure”

  • “Therefore, our side knows how to do it. We have the means with which to do it. We simply need to do it.”

  • “…show all of Southeast Asia…that we will take strong measures…”

  • “Say, for instance, that we hand them a plan to distribute ten thousand radios to villages so that peasants can listen to Saigon propaganda broadcasts. They respond enthusiastically, and we deliver the radios. A few months later, when we inquire, they tell us what we want to hear: peasants are being converted to the government cause. We’re winning the war. But what has really happened? Have all the radios reached the villages, or have half of them been sold on the black market? Are the peasants listening to Saigon or Hanoi? We don’t know.”

  • “I suffer to see the war go on…yet our people are determined to struggle.” Prime Minister Pham Van Dong

  • “ I cannot confirm that I saw an act of aggression.”


  • Login