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HRM: Work process design Overview. Fundamentals of organizational design (Kieser & Kubicek, 1983). Specialization: Distribution of labor, resulting in different kinds of work tasks Coordination: Management of dependencies among subtasks, resources, and people

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Fundamentals of organizational design kieser kubicek 1983 l.jpg
Fundamentals of organizational design(Kieser & Kubicek, 1983)

  • Specialization: Distribution of labor, resulting in different kinds of work tasks

  • Coordination: Management of dependencies among subtasks, resources, and people

  • Configuration: Structure of line of command

  • Delegation of decision authority: Distribution of decision authority regarding actions and decision rules

  • Formalization: Determination of rules and procedures for work processes


Changes in organizational design examples l.jpg
Changes in organizational design: Examples

  • Functional specialization vs. integration

  • Line vs. group production

  • Centralization vs. decentralization

  • Increase in formalization (e.g. management systems)

  • ...


Slide4 l.jpg

Phases of organizational change

Unfreeze - Move - Freeze

New level of equilibrium

Restraining forces

Current level of equilibrium

Driving forces



Slide6 l.jpg

Change strategies organization

•Personal versus structural approach:

•Expert versus process consulting

  • Planned change (e.g. BPR) versus organization development


Slide7 l.jpg

Kotter (1996) organization

to manage change: to tell people what to do

to lead change: to show people how to be


Resistance against change l.jpg
Resistance against change organization

Causes: Uncertainty regarding novel things

Sense of loss of control

Sticking to old norms/privileges

One-sided perception of old/new situation

Strategies dealing with resistance:

rational = Informing about advantages of new situation

normative/ = Developing new compatible values and norms ("speaking re-educative differently rather than arguing well as chief instrument for cultural change")

coercion = sanctioning change through exercising power

Requirements for constructive handling of resistance:

Participation

Trust/openness

Qualification for change

Avoiding strain/threat


Participation l.jpg
Participation organization

"Opportunities for individuals and groups to follow their interests by influencing the choice of alternatives in a given situation"

Degree of influence:

Information = no influence

Consultation = opportunity for expressing opinions

= due consideration of all opinions

Veto

Common decision

Effects of participation:

Control, motivation, competence development;

Common decision as link between change motivation and

changed behavior

Attention!

Fit between chosen form of participation and general principles of operation in the organization is crucial


Degree of participation in decision making the decision tree by vroom yetton 1973 l.jpg
Degree of participation in decision-making: organizationThe decision tree by Vroom & Yetton (1973)

  • Is there a quality requirement: Is one solution better than another?

  • Do you yourself have enough information to make a good decision?

  • Is the problem well-defined? Has it been reduced already to choosing among a set of alternatives?

  • Is it important for implementation that the decision and its effects are accepted by your team?

  • Would your team accept the decision if you made it alone?

  • Does your team share the organizational goals which are to be reached through the decision?

  • Will the chosen solution lead to conflicts among your team?


Slide11 l.jpg

Autocratic decision organization

no

4

yes

yes

5

no

no

1

Group decision

no

4

Autocratic decision

yes

yes

yes

yes

5

Group decision

no

yes

2

5

6

yes

yes

4

no

no

3

no

Individual decision after

consultation with group

yes

yes

no

7

no

Individual decision after

consulation with each

group member

no

Autocratic decision after

obtaining information

from individual group

members

5

yes

4

yes

no

no

Individual decision after

consultation with group

6

yes

Group decision

no

Individual decision after

consultation with group


A process approach to work process design organization development l.jpg
A process approach to work process design: Organization development

Change of the entire organizational system with active participation of all people involved in order to increase organizational performance and individual development

 Participation and openness of the change process as core characteristic

 Taking into consideration the linkages between subsystems in the organization

 Linking organizational and individual goals

 Change through the process of changing (i.e. participatory diagnosis and implementation)


Basis for participatory diagnosis socio technical systems analysis l.jpg
Basis for participatory diagnosis: development Socio-technical systems analysis

1. - 4.Analysis of work system and its organizational integration

  • Description of most important elements of work system and its environment (Layout, organizational structure and processes, relationship to other parts of the organization, etc.)

  • Detailed description of the production processes

  • Identification of main variances and disturbances and their sources

  • Detailed description of the social system (distribution of labor, work role assignments, reulation requirements and possibilities, etc.)

    5. Perception of task requirements and their fulfilment by members of the work system

    6. - 8. Analysis of external influences on the work system

    6. Maintenance system

    7. Supplier/costumer relationships

    8. Context (market, societal factors etc.)

    9. Design propositions


Introducing an intranet at admin grote 1993 l.jpg
Introducing an intranet at Admin development (Grote, 1993)

  • Introduction of an intranet in part of a large administration for supporting professionals in carrying out long-term cross-departmental projects with high cooperation demands

  • Company objective in phase 1: Increasing efficiency of communication in existing structures

  • Revised company objective in phase 2: Increasing efficieny and effectiveness of work processes through participatory use of organizational options


Design decisions phase 1 top down l.jpg
Design decisions phase 1 development (top-down)

  • All heads of groups/departments and some professional staff are included in intranet.

  • Distribution of tasks and work processes are to remain unchanged.



Profile of intranet usage in year 1 l.jpg
Profile of intranet usage in year 1 based on task diaries

once per day

several times per week

once per week

never


Communication network in year 1 l.jpg
Communication network in year 1 based on task diaries


Technology use as reflection of organizational culture grote baitsch 1993 l.jpg
Technology use as reflection of organizational culture based on task diaries(Grote & Baitsch, 1993)


Technology use as reflection of organizational culture 2 grote baitsch 1993 l.jpg
Technology use as reflection of organizational culture (2) based on task diaries(Grote & Baitsch, 1993)


Technology use as reflection of organizational culture 3 grote baitsch 1993 l.jpg
Technology use as reflection of organizational culture (3) based on task diaries(Grote & Baitsch, 1993)


Design meetings after phase 1 l.jpg
Design meetings after phase 1 based on task diaries

  • Meetings per department/group with representatives of all occupational groups

  • Information on results of phase 1

  • Analysis of own current work situation

  • Analysis of typical work processes with strengths and weaknesses

  • Discussion on potential of intranet to improve individual work situation and work processes


Design decisions phase 2 bottom up l.jpg
Design decisions phase 2 based on task diaries(bottom-up)

  • All administrative assistants are included in intranet.

  • Redistribution of tasks between admini-strative assistants and professional staff (more adminstrative tasks for professio-nals, more professional tasks for assistants)

  • In some groups delegation of decision authority to professional staff.


Profile of intranet usage in year 2 l.jpg
Profile of intranet usage in year 2 based on task diaries

once per day

several times per week

once per week

never


Conclusions on introduction of intranet at admin l.jpg
Conclusions on introduction of intranet at Admin based on task diaries

  • Participatory reflection on technology use improves organization-technology fit.

  • Organizational culture shapes technology use.

  • Intranet technologies have the potential for furthering decentralization.

  • Organizational diagnosis and continuous description of changes are main instru-ments for supporting decisions on work process design.


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