Foundations of community health
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Foundations of Community Health. Introduction. In this unit the foundations for community health nursing are presented. Basic information about the definition and description of a community; The preparation for working in this discipline; the function,

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Foundations of Community Health

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Foundations of Community Health


Introduction

In this unit the foundations for community health nursing are presented.

Basic information about the definition and description of a community;

The preparation for working in this discipline; the function,

Roles and settings for community health nursing; culture, ethics and values to consider in the community; and the structure, function and financing of health care is focused on in this unit.


Community Health Nursing Opportunities and Challenges


Objectives:

Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Define community health and distinguish it from public health.

  • Explain the concept of community.

  • Describe three types of communities.


Objectives:

  • Diagram the health continuum.

  • Differentiate among the three levels of prevention.

  • Analyze the six components of community health practice.

  • Describe the eight characteristics of community health nursing.


Concept of Community

  • …collection of people who interact with one another and whose common interests or characteristics form the basis for a sense of unity or belonging

  • List some communities:


Community Health (CH) and Public Health (PH)

  • CH = “identification of needs and the protection and improvement of collective health within a geographically defined area”

  • PH = “activities that society undertakes to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy”


Three Types of Communities

1- Geographic = city, town, neighborhood

2- Common-interest = professional organization, people with mastectomies

3- Community of solution = group of people who come together to solve a problem that affects all of them


Example of Communities of Solution

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Wellness-Illness continuum


Six Components of Community Health Practice

1- Promotion of health

2- Prevention of health problems

3- Treatment of disorders

4- Rehabilitation

5- Evaluation

6- Research

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Health Promotion

  • All efforts that seek to move people closer to optimal well-being or higher levels of wellness

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Levels of Prevention:

  • Primary

    • Keep illness or injury from occurring

  • Secondary

    • Efforts to detect and treat existing disease

  • Tertiary

    • Reduce the extent and severity of a health problem to its lowest possible level to minimize disability and restore or preserve function

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Describe Eight Characteristics of Community Health Nursing

1- Field of nursing:

  • shift from individual to aggregate (public)

    2- Combines public health with nursing

  • Community-based & population focused

  • Public health sciences & nursing theory

    3- Population focused

    4- Emphasizes prevention

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Describe Eight Characteristics of Community Health Nursing

5- Promotes client responsibility & self-care

6- Use aggregate assessment measurement & analysis

7- Uses principles of organizational theory

8- Involves inter-professional collaboration

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END OF PART ONE …

BYE….

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Evolution of Community Health Nursing

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Objectives:

Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Describe the four stages of community health nursing’s development.

  • Analyze the impact of societal influences on the development and practice of community health nursing.

  • Recognize the contributions of selected nursing leaders throughout history to the advancement of community health nursing.

  • Explore the academic and advanced professional preparation of community health nurses.

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Describe the four stages of community health development

  • Early Home Care (before Mid-1800s)

  • District (local) Nursing (Mid-1800s to 1900)

  • Public Health Nursing (1900 – 1970)

  • Community Health Nursing (1970 – present)

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Early home care (before Mid-1800s)

  • Religious and charitable groups

  • Elizabethan Poor Law

  • St. Vincent de Paul

  • Home deliveries

  • Industrial revolution

  • Florence Nightingale & Mary Seacole

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District Nursing (Mid-1800s to 1900)

  • Visiting Nursing (district nursing)

  • Care of individuals

  • Religious to private philanthropy

  • Health visitors backbone of primary health care system

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Public Health Nursing (1900 – 1970)

  • Expansion to health & welfare of the general public

  • Specialized programs

  • Public Health Nursing

    • Teachers College

    • National Organization for Public Health Nursing

    • Henry Street Settlement

  • National League of Nursing Education

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Community Health Nursing

  • Community Health Nursing

    • Public Health Nursing (Epidemiology)

    • Community-based clinics

    • Work Sites

    • Schools

  • Collaboration and interdisciplinary teamwork

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Analyze the impact of societal influences on CHN

  • Advanced technology

  • Causal thinking

  • Educational changes

  • Role changes for women

  • Consumer movement & changing demographics

  • Economic forces

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Identify five characteristics shared by all cultures

1- Learned

2- Integrated

3- Shared

4- Mostly tacit

5- Dynamic

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Case Study:

  • Assume that you have been asked to make a home visit to a 75-year-old man living alone whose wife recently died.

    • Besides assessing his individual needs, what additional factors should you consider for assessment and intervention that would indicate an aggregate or population-focused approach?

    • What self-care practices might you encourage or teach?

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Internet Resources

  • American Academy of Nursing: http://www.nursingworld.org/aan

  • American Assembly for Men in Nursing: http://www.aamn.org

  • American Nurses Association: http://www.ana.org

  • American Nurses Credentialing Center: http://www.nursingworld.org/ancc/index.html

  • American Nursing Informatics Association: http://www.ania.org

  • American Public Health Association: http://www.apha.org

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Internet Resources

  • National Association of Hispanic Nurses: http://www.nahnhq.org

  • National Center for Health Statistics: http://www.cdc.gov/hchc

  • National League for Nursing: http://www.nln.org

  • Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing: http://www.nursingsociety.org

  • U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov

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END OF PART TWO…

BYE….


Roles and Settings for CHN

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Objectives:

Upon mastery of this chapter, you should be able to:

● Identify the three core public health functions basic to community among seven different roles of the community health nurse.

● Discuss the seven roles within the framework of public health nursing functions.

● Explain the importance of each role for influencing people’s health.

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Objectives:

● Identify and discuss factors that affect a nurse’s selection and practice of each role.

● Describe seven settings in which community health nurses practice.

● Discuss the nature of community health nursing, and the common threads basic to its practice, woven throughout all roles and settings.

● Identify principles of sound nursing practice in the community.

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Three Core PH Functions

1) Assessment

  • Regular collection, analysis and sharing of information about health conditions, risks and resources in a community

    2) Policy Development

  • Use of assessment data to develop policy and direct resources toward those policies

    3) Assurance

  • Availability of necessary services throughout the community

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Seven Roles & Influence on People’s Health

1- Clinician: focus on holism, health promotion, & prevention while using expanded skills

2- Educator: plan for community-wide impact

3- Advocate: Support client self-determination and responsive systems

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How Roles & Factors Influence People’s Health

4- Manager: Participative approach with community

5- Collaborator: multidisciplinary collegiality and leadership

6- Leadership: Change agent

7- Researcher: Systematic investigation, collection, and analysis of data for solving problems and bring evidence-based findings to community settings

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Seven Settings

  • Homes

  • Ambulatory Service

  • Schools

  • Occupational Health

  • Residential Institutions

  • Parishes

  • Community at Large

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Nature & Common Threads Basic to Practice

  • Many nursing roles

  • Special skill sets

    • Assessment

    • Policy Development

    • Assurance

  • Variety of clients in specific situations

  • Collaboration with other institutions

    • Schools & Parishes

    • Occupational Health

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Principles of Sound Community Nursing Practice

  • Standards of practice

  • Standards of care

  • Management essential to all nursing roles

    • Community Nursing Process: assessment, planning, implementation, & evaluation

    • Case management

  • Essential Behaviors

    • Decision-making

    • Transferring information

    • Relationship building

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Internet Resources

  • A Day in the Life of Public Health

    • http://www.apha.org/career/dayinlife.htm

  • Public Health Nursing Section of APHA

    • http://www.csuchico.edu/~horst/

  • Ten Essential Services of Public Health

    • http://www.apha.org/ppp/science/10ES.htm

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TANK YOU ….

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