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Human African Trypanosomiasis ( sleeping sickness)

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Human African Trypanosomiasis ( sleeping sickness). Ankita Desai. Kinetoplastids include Sleeping sickness. Approximately 400 million people are at risk of contracting a kinetoplastid disease. Distribution of funds for sleeping sickness. What is HAT?.

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Kinetoplastids include Sleeping sickness.

Approximately 400 million people are at risk of contracting a kinetoplastid disease.

what is hat
What is HAT?
  • Human African Trypanosomiasis = “sleeping sickness”
  • Early stage vs. late stage
how does one contract hat
How does one contract HAT?
  • Tsetse fly is a vector
what causes disease
What causes disease?
  • Trypanosomabruceigambiense – chronic
  • Trypanosomabruceirhodesiense – acute; infects cattle and humans
structure of trypanosome
Structure of trypanosome
  • Nucleus
  • Kinetoplast (circular DNA inside mitochondrion)
  • Flagella for movement
who does it affect
Who does it affect?
  • 36 African countries & ~ 60 million people at risk in 1996.
  • WHO estimate: b/w 50,000 and 70,000 people are infected.
who is most susceptible
Who is most susceptible?
  • At risk if near/on:
    • forest trails
    • water collection points in forests
    • Riverbanks
    • forest edges surrounding plantations
  • Flies are attracted by large moving objects and by CO2which is why they often feed on animals and humans
  • HAT mainly affects the most productive age group (15 to 45 years).
how to detect hat
How to detect HAt
  • Look for inflammation of the brain and its covering, the meninges
  • Tests include the following:
    • Blood smear
    • Cerebrospinal fluid tests
    • Complete blood count (CBC)
    • Lymph node aspiration
how can we cure infected persons
How can we cure infected persons?
  • drug treatment
    • Melarsoprol
    • Eflornithine (T. gambienseonly)
    • Nifurtimox (used with Eflornithine)
problem of relapse and potential drug resistance
Problem of relapse and potential drug resistance

Melarsoprol relapse rates in second-stage human African trypanosomiasis patients, Equateur Nord Province, 2001–2003

how can the disease be prevented
How can the disease be prevented?
  • WHO suggests supplying people with tsetse fly traps
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