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Effective Faculty Searches. Vincent Price Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs Lubna Mian Associate Director of Faculty Affairs October, 2008. Our Goals. Excellence Diversity Strategic development Interdisciplinary scholarship. Effective Faculty Searches | # 2. Why Diversity?.

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Effective Faculty Searches

Vincent Price

Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs

Lubna Mian

Associate Director of Faculty Affairs

October, 2008


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Our Goals

  • Excellence

  • Diversity

  • Strategic development

  • Interdisciplinary scholarship

Effective Faculty Searches | # 2


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Why Diversity?

  • Increased talent pool

  • Student support

  • Better teamwork

  • Equity

Effective Faculty Searches | # 3


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Achieving our Goals

  • Large and diverse applicant pools

  • Careful and unbiased evaluations

  • Thorough interviewing processes

  • Intelligent collective decision making

Effective Faculty Searches | # 4


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A Diverse Pool

U.S. Population 2005

68%

12.7%

13.8%

5.2%

Effective Faculty Searches | # 5


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A Diverse Pool

U.S. Ph.D. Recipients 1995-2005

61.8%

Population

Ph.D. Pool

21.1%

4.8%

4.6%

Effective Faculty Searches | # 6


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A Diverse Pool

Penn Standing Faculty 2006

83.4%

Population

Ph.D. Pool

Penn Faculty

10.8%

3.2%

2.5%

Effective Faculty Searches | # 7


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A Diverse Pool

U.S. Population 2005

50.7%

49.3%

Effective Faculty Searches | # 8


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A Diverse Pool

U.S. Ph.D. Recipients 1995-2005

Population

Ph.D. Pool

57%

43%

Effective Faculty Searches | # 9


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A Diverse Pool

Penn Standing Faculty 2006

72.9%

Population

Ph.D. Pool

Penn Faculty

27.1%

Effective Faculty Searches | # 10


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Comparison to peers

Data reflect only tenured and tenure-track faculty

Comparison Peers: Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Duke, Georgetown, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, MIT, Northwestern, Princeton, Rice, Stanford, Chicago, Rochester, Washington University, Yale

Source: Data Reported to the U.S. Department of Education

Effective Faculty Searches | # 11


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Asian

Black

Hispanic

White

Faculty Turnover

2003-2006

61

Arts & Sciences

13

5

3

-4

-3

-4

-64

Effective Faculty Searches | # 12


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Grooming Large and Diverse Pools

Active Searches

  • Know the obstacles

  • Network before opening search

  • Use targeted outreach

  • Use word of mouth

  • Avoid undue narrowcasting

Effective Faculty Searches | # 13


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Careful and Unbiased Evaluation

Harder than you think!

  • Diffusion of responsibility

  • Short cuts

  • Unconscious bias

Effective Faculty Searches | # 14


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Unconscious Schemas

Natural part of perception and evaluation

  • Beliefs about people

  • Beliefs about how people “ought” to be

    Contributing factors

  • Ambiguity

  • Stress from competing tasks

  • Time pressure

  • Lack of critical mass

Fiske (2002). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123-128.

Effective Faculty Searches | # 15


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Unconscious Schemas

High

Women

Warmth

Whites

Asians

Blacks

Men

Hispanics

Low

Low

High

Competence

Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu (2002). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902.

Effective Faculty Searches | # 16


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From University of Michigan STRIDE program (http://sitemaker.umich.edu/advance/stride)


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Evaluating C.V.s

Brian

Karen

University psychology

professors preferred

“Brian” over “Karen” by 2:1

Steinpreis, Anders, & Ritzke (1999) Sex Roles, 41, 509.

Effective Faculty Searches | # 18


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Callbacks

Black-sounding names (“Jamal”):

15 resumes = callback

White-sounding names (“Greg”):

  • 10 resumes = callback

  • Equivalent to 8 extra years experience

Bertrand & Mullainathan (2004) Poverty Action Lab, 3, 1-27.

Effective Faculty Searches | # 19


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Letters of Recommendation

Letters for women

  • Shorter

  • Fewer references to c.v.

  • Twice as many gender references

  • More references to personal life

  • Fewer standout references (“excellent”) and more “grindstone” references (“hardworking”)

  • Twice as many hedges and irrelevancies (“It’s amazing how much she’s accomplished”)

Trix & Psenka (2003) Discourse & Society, 14(2), 191-220.

Effective Faculty Searches | # 20


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Influences on Advancement

Simulated organizational hierarchy

  • Start with 50-50 gender mix

  • Assume 1 percent bias in promotions

    After eight promotion cycles:

  • Highest management level 65% male

Martell, Lane, & Emrich (1996) American Psychologist, 51, 157-158.

Effective Faculty Searches | # 21


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Reducing Bias

  • Reducing ambiguity

  • Avoiding “solo” presence in pool

  • Taking time to review applications

  • Focusing on positive exemplars

Dovidio & Gaertner (2000). Psychological Science, 11, 315-319.

Fiske (2002). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123-128.

Martell (1991). Journal of Applied Soc Psychol, 21, 1939-1960.

Dasgupta & Greenwald (2001). Journal of Pers & Soc Psych, 81, 800-814.

Effective Faculty Searches | # 22


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Careful and Unbiased Evaluation

Thoughtfulness and accountability

  • Supportive, diverse committee

  • Familiarity with research on bias

  • Structured, evidence-based review

    • Apply consistent, objective criteria

    • Evaluate entire application

    • Treat recommendations with care

    • Avoid over-reliance on prestige

Effective Faculty Searches | # 23


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Effective Visits

  • Show enthusiasm

  • Offer dual-career and family-friendly policy information

  • Identify colleagues who can discuss climate for women and minorities

  • Introduce the city and region

  • Stay in contact

  • Be even-handed and transparent in negotiating

Effective Faculty Searches | # 24


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Dual-Career Couples

Sequential:

One partner hired first, then negotiates for the “second hire.”

5.5%

Dual Hires:

Hired as a couple

8%

Independent Hires:

Each replied to separate advertisements for position, or met after they were hired.

20%

Joint:

Recruited by university as a couple.

2.5%

Solo Hires:

Only one partner in the couple is currently employed in academia.

9%

Clayman Institute Survey of Penn Faculty N= 949 (34% response rate)

Effective Faculty Searches | # 25


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Some Resources

  • Faculty Opportunity Fund

  • Benefits and Retirements Brochures

  • Online Application System

  • HERC

  • Accompanying Spouse-Partner Program

  • Relocation Assistance

  • Child Care

Effective Faculty Searches | # 26


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Discussion

Effective Faculty Searches | # 27



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