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Understand how geography influenced the Greek city-states. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Objectives. Understand how geography influenced the Greek city-states. Define the three types of government that developed in the Greek city-states. Explain how Sparta and Athens differed. Describe the culture and values shared by Greeks. Terms and People.

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Objectives

  • Understand how geography influenced the Greek city-states.

  • Define the three types of government that developed in the Greek city-states.

  • Explain how Sparta and Athens differed.

  • Describe the culture and values shared by Greeks.


Terms and People

  • polis – a city-state in ancient Greece

  • acropolis – section of a city at a higher elevation with great marble temples dedicated to deities

  • citizen – free resident of a city-state

  • monarchy – a government in which a hereditary ruler exercises central power

  • aristocracy – rule by a hereditary landholding elite


Terms and People(continued)

  • oligarchy – a form of government in which power is in the hands of a small, wealthy elite

  • phalanx – a massive tactical formation of heavily armed foot soldiers

  • Sparta – a city-state built by the Dorians in which daily life was ruled by military discipline

  • Athens –a Greek city-state that moved slowly toward democracy


Terms and People(continued)

  • democracy – government by the people

  • tyrant –a ruler who gained power by force

  • legislature – a lawmaking body


How did government and culture develop as Greek city-states grew?

Ancient Greeks absorbed ideas from older civilizations and developed their own unique ideas as well.

They developed new ways to best govern each polis.


Ancient civilization in Greece was shaped by its unique geography.

  • Mountains created valleys, and hundreds of rocky islands extended from the coast.

  • Independent city-states formed in these isolated islands and valleys.

Rivalries between city-states often led to war.


The sea was a link to the outside world. geography.Greeks became skilled sailors.

Population growth caused Greeks to expand overseas.


Greeks built cities on two levels, with an geography.acropolis on the top of a hill and a walled main city below.

  • The citizens, or free residents, of cities, shared responsibilities and debated ideas.

  • Male landowners held all of the political power.


aristocracy: geography.

rule by a hereditary landholding elite

oligarchy:

a government in which power is in the hands of a small, wealthy elite

Different forms of government evolved in Greece between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C.

monarchy:

a hereditary ruler exercises central power


As forms of government evolved, new warfare methods also emerged.

Affordable iron weapons replaced bronze, increasing the power of the middle class.

Soldiers trained to fight in a phalanx, and this training created unity.


Sparta emerged.stressed military virtues and strong discipline.

Athens glorified the individual and extended rights to more citizens.

Phalanx warfare put defense of a city-state into the hands of ordinary citizens.

At the same time, it led to two influential city-states developing different ways of life.


In emerged.Spartan warrior society:

  • Boys began military training at age seven.

  • They lived in army barracks until age 30.

  • Everyone was required to exercise and develop strength.

  • Trade, wealth, and art were not considered important.


Pisistratus emerged.helped farmers and the poor. He gave ordinary citizens a larger role in government.

Cliesthenes made the assembly a legislature.

All male citizens were expected to participate.

Athens moved slowly toward democracy.

Solon made reforms including opening high offices to more citizens.

Democracy in Athens was limited, but the people had more of a voice than in any other ancient civilization.


Women in Athens could not participate in government. They played a significant role in public religion.

  • Women participated in sacred processions and ceremonies.

  • Well-to-do women managed their households, and were not seen in public.

  • Poorer women worked outside the home.


Athenian boys learned how to read and write the Greek language, from which Roman, and eventually English, characters evolved.

Wealthy boys also studied music, poetry, and public speaking.


Despite divisions among city-states, Greeks did share a common culture.

  • They prayed to the same gods, including Zeus.

  • They shared a sense of superiority over foreigners.


Section Review language, from which Roman, and eventually English, characters evolved.

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