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Type of in vitro culture. Culture of intact plants (Seed orchid culture) Embryo culture (embryo rescue) Organ culture 1. shoot tip culture 2. Root culture 3. Leaf culture 4. anther culture Callus culture Cell suspension and single cell culture Protoplast culture. Seed culture.

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Type of in vitro culture

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Type of in vitro culture

Type of in vitro culture

Type of in vitro culture

  • Culture of intact plants (Seed orchid culture)

  • Embryo culture (embryo rescue)

  • Organ culture

    1. shoot tip culture

    2. Root culture

    3. Leaf culture

    4. anther culture

  • Callus culture

  • Cell suspension and single cell culture

  • Protoplast culture

Seed culture

Seed culture

  • Increasing efficiency of germination of seeds that are difficult to germinate in vivo

  • Precocious germination by application of plant growth regulators

  • Production of clean seedlings for explants or meristem culture

Embryo rescue

Embryo rescue

  • This is useful technique in plant tissue culture where embryo abortion is reported at early stage and seed setting is failed.

  • Here immature embryo, ovary or ovule is rescued

    ( separated ) and cultured.

Endosperm culture

Endosperm culture

  • As endosperm is triploid so are the plantlets formed from it.

  • This technique may be exploited as an alternative to crossing tetraploid and diploid parents for raising triploids during plant improvement programme.

  • The triploid plants are self-sterile and usually seedless.

Organ culture

Organ culture

  • Any plant organ can serve as an explant to initiate cultures

Shoot apical meristem culture

Shoot apical meristem culture

  • Culturing of apical meristem (the region of shoot apex laying distal to leaf primordium)

  • Also known as meristem culture, meristemming & mericlones.

  • Extensively used in horticulture, agriculture and forestry.

  • Production of virus free germplasm

  • Mass production of desirable genotypes

  • Facilitation of exchange between locations (production of clean material)

  • Cryopreservation (cold storage) or in vitro conservation of germplasm

Root tip culture

Root tip culture

  • By using meristematic cells such as those that operate in the root tip or bud.

  • Conceived by Kotte (germany) and Robbins (USA) in 1922.

Type of in vitro culture

new leaf





apical meristem

leaf trace

axillary meristem


Meristematic tissues

Meristematic tissues ...

  • Shoot ... apical, … axillary

Meristematic tissues1

Meristematic tissues ...

  • Shoot ... apical, … axillary

  • Leaf

  • Root

Meristematic tissues2

Meristematic tissues ...

  • Shoot ... apical, … axillary

  • Leaf

  • Root

  • Adventitious

  • Cambial tissues

Anther and pollen grain culture

Anther and pollen grain culture

Haploid plants are derived from microspores (pollen) cultured individually or in anthers

First report of Haploid plant from anther and pollen culture is by eminent Indian embryologists Guha & Maheshwarifrom the plant Daturastramonium.

Wheat, Rice, Maize, Rye, Tobacco, Potato, Brassicas has been used in pollen & anther culture to release the cultivars having superior chts. , high yield & disease resistance.

Ovary or ovule culture

Ovary or ovule culture

  • Production of haploid plants

  • A common explant for the initiation of somatic embryogenic cultures

  • Overcoming abortion of embryos of wide hybrids at very early stages of development due to incompatibility barriers

  • In vitro fertilization for the production of distant hybrids avoiding style and stigmatic incompatibility that inhibits pollen germination and pollen tube growth

Type of in vitro culture

Bajaj, Y.P.S. 1983. In D.A. Evans, W.R. Sharp, P.V. Ammirato, and Y. Yamada (eds.), Handbook of Plant Cell Culture. Volume 1. Techniques for Propagation and Breeding. MacMillan, New York. p. 228-287.

Callus cultures

Callus Cultures

  • Callus is formed via 3 developmental stages:

  • 1. Induction

  • 2. Cell division

  • 3. Differentiation

  • Callus formation is governed by

  • The source of Explants

  • Nutritional composition of medium

  • And environmental factors

  • The unique feature of callus is that the abnormal growth has biological potential to develop normal root, shoot, and embryo ultimately forming plant.

Need for callus cultures

Need for Callus Cultures

  • In some instances it is necessary to go through a callus phase prior to regeneration via somatic embryogenesis or organogenesis

  • For generation of useful somaclonal variants

  • As a source of protoplasts and suspension cultures

  • For production of metabolites

  • Used in in vitro selection

Cell suspension culture

Cell suspension culture

  • The technique of isolation and culturing a single selected cell

  • When callus pieces are agitated in a liquid medium, they tend to break up.

  • Uses:

  • Induction of somatic embryos and shoots

  • In vitro mutagenesis and selection of mutants

  • Genetic transformation studies

  • Production of secondary metabolites etc.

Type of in vitro culture








Artificial seeds




Cell fusion

Gene transfer

Applications of plant cell culture

Suspension culture

Protoplast culture

Protoplast culture

Cell without cell wall is called protoplast.

For tissue culture application protoplast can be isolated from almost any part of the plant but leaves are preferentially used for this purpose as these are easy to handle.

Technique involves following steps;

A. Sterilization of the explant by 2% sodium hypochloride for about 30 minutes.

B. Peeling of the epidermal cells.

C. Digestion of cell wall by enzymes, macerozymes, cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase.

D. Washing of the released protoplasts.

Protoplast fusion

Protoplast fusion

The common methods employed for the fusion of the released protoplasts is as:

A. Spontaneous fusion of protoplast.

B. Mechanical induction fusion.

C.NaNO3 induced fusion.

D. High p H and Ca++ induced fusion.

E. Poly Ethylene Glycol induced fusion (PEG).

F. Electro fusion.

Type of in vitro culture

The most popular method of protoplast fusion is PEG induced fusion.

  • In this freshly isolated protoplasts from desired parents are mixed in appropriate mixture.

  • The mixture is treated with 28-50% PEG for 15-30 minutes to facilitate fusion.

  • Protoplasts are subject to gradual wash with culture medium.

  • Fusion frequency can be increased by 50% if high Ca++ concentration is used at p H 9-10.

Somatic embryogenesis

Somatic embryogenesis

  • The process of a single cell or group of cells initiating the development pathways that leads to reproducible regeneration of non zygotic embryo capable of germination to form complete plant.


  • a process embryo initiation and development from somatic cell (non zygotic cell)

Type of in vitro culture

Haploid - Gametic number of chromosomes, n which may not be equivalent to x (x is one genomic complement)

Monoploid - haploid derived from a diploid, x(one genomic complement)

Polyhaploid - haploid from a polyploid (nx), prefix indicates genome complement number, e.g. tobacco is a dihaploid

Type of in vitro culture

Agricultural applications for haploids -Rapid generation of homozygous genotypes after chromosome doubling

  • Reduce time for variety development, e.g. 10 to 6 years or less

  • Homozygous recombinant line can be developed in one generation instead of after numerous backcross generations

  • Selection for recessive traits in recombinant lines is more efficient since these are not masked by the effects of dominant alleles

Type of in vitro culture

Processes Leading to Production of Haploid Plants

  • Androgenesis – haploid plant derived from male gamete, most common method in vitro

  • Parthenogenesis - from unfertilized egg

  • Apogamy- from other cells of the mega-gametophyte, example

  • Chromosome elimination - chromosome elimination in somatic cells, most common method used with plant breeding

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