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Antebellum Revivalism & Reform. Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. 1. The Second Great Awakening. “Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism]. Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality. Education. Temperance. Abolitionism. Asylum & Penal Reform.

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Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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AntebellumRevivalism&Reform

Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY


1.The Second Great

Awakening

“Spiritual Reform From Within”[Religious Revivalism]

Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality

Education

Temperance

Abolitionism

Asylum &Penal Reform

Women’s Rights


Second Great Awakening

  • At the start of the 18th century many people wanted to improve the character of the American people

  • Most Americans still attended Church

  • Many leading figures were Deists

  • Helped create Unitarianism – God existed in only one person, not the Trinity

  • They stressed the goodness of human nature and saw God as loving and kind


  • Unitarians tended to be intellectuals like Ralph Waldo Emerson, who were rational and optimistic

  • Slowly a new emphasis on religion started to develop

  • It also influenced prison reform, temperance, woman’s movement and the abolition of slavery

  • At “camp meeting” thousands would meet to hear evangelical speakers

  • Many new believers became Baptists or Methodists


  • Preachers like Charles Goodison Finney appealed to thousands who wanted to be saved – especially appealing to women

  • Methodists and Baptists tended to come from the less wealthier segments of society

  • In 1844 the Methodists and Baptists both split from their northern churches over the issue of slavery

  • In 1857 the Presbyterians also split over the issue


“The Benevolent Empire”:1825 - 1846


Second Great AwakeningRevival Meeting


Mormons

  • In 1830 Joseph Smith claimed he had been given golden plates by an angel

  • The plates became the Book of Mormon and launched the Church of Latter-Day Saints

  • Accusations of polygamy led to continued hostility

  • In 1844 Smith and his brother were murdered in Illinois – the movement seemed in danger


The Mormons(The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)

  • 1823  Golden Tablets

  • 1830 Book of Mormon

  • 1844  Murdered in Carthage, IL

Joseph Smith(1805-1844)


The Mormon “Trek”


The Mormons(The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints)

  • Deseret community.

  • Salt Lake City, Utah

Brigham Young(1801-1877)


  • Brigham Young took over and in 1846-7 he led his people to Utah to avoid persecution

  • The barren land of Utah was soon made to flourish by the Mormons and the community grew

  • But problems occurred when Washington D.C. tried to control Young who had made himself governor

  • Issues of polygamy prevented the territory from becoming a state until 1896


Mother Ann Lee (1736-1784)

The Shakers

  • If you will take up your crosses against the works of generations, and follow Christ in theregeneration, God will cleanse you from allunrighteousness.

  • Remember the cries of those who are in need and trouble, that when you are in trouble, God may hear your cries.

  • If you improve in one talent, God will give you more.

R1-4


Shaker Meeting


Shaker Simplicity & Utility


Literature

  • Before 1820 much of the literature was British and few people actually had the time to read

  • After the War of 1812 and the development of a national spirit, literature became important

  • Washington Irving was the first American author to gain international recognition. He wrote Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow


  • James Fenimore Cooper, was the first American novelist –the Leatherstocking Tales which included The Last of the Mohicans

  • One of the effects of the flowering of literature was the transcendental movement

  • They rejected the traditional philosophies that knowledge comes from the senses and stressed that truth transcends the senses, not just through observations


2.Transcendentalism

(European Romanticism)

  • Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.”

  • “Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe.


Transcendentalist Thinking

  • Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof:

    • The infinite benevolence of God.

    • The infinite benevolence of nature.

    • The divinity of man.


Transcendentalist Intellectuals/WritersConcord, MA

Ralph Waldo

Emerson

Henry David

Thoreau

Nature(1832)

Resistance to Civil Disobedience(1849)

Self-Reliance (1841)

Walden(1854)

“The American Scholar” (1837)

R3-1/3/4/5


A Transcendentalist Critic:Nathaniel Hawthorne(1804-1864)

  • Their pursuit of the ideal led to a distorted view of humannature and possibilities:*The Blithedale Romance

  • One should accept the world as an imperfect place:*Scarlet Letter*House of the Seven Gables


3.Utopian Communities


The Oneida CommunityNew York, 1848

  • Millenarianism --> the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred.

  • Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past.

  • all residents married to each other.

  • carefully regulated “free love.”

John Humphrey Noyes(1811-1886)


Secular Utopian Communities

IndividualFreedom

Demands ofCommunity Life

  • spontaneity

  • self-fulfillment

  • discipline

  • organizationalhierarchy


George Ripley (1802-1880)

Brook FarmWest Roxbury, MA


Robert Owen (1771-1858)

Utopian Socialist

“Village of Cooperation”


Why Did New Harmony Fail?


Original Plans for New Harmony, IN

New Harmony in 1832


Reforms

  • The Second Great Awakening caused people to seek the creation of a morally-correct society

  • Some of the most significant reforms were in the field of prison reform – especially for debt

  • By the 1830s hundreds of people were in prison for owing less than one dollar

  • The Enlightenment led to a softening of harsh punishments


4.Penitentiary Reform

Dorothea Dix

(1802-1887)

1821  first penitentiary foundedin Auburn, NY

R1-5/7


Dorothea Dix Asylum - 1849


  • The other big problem in America was alcoholism

  • 1826 American Temperance Society formed in Boston

  • They stressed temperance as opposed to “teetotalism”

  • Neal S. Dow became known as the “Father of Prohibition” sponsored the Maine Law in 1851, prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol


5.Temperance Movement

1826 - American Temperance Society“Demon Rum”!

Frances Willard

The Beecher Family

R1-6


Annual Consumption of Alcohol


Based on the above chart: Was the Temperance Movement Successful?


7.Educational Reform

Religious Training  Secular Education

  • MA  always on the forefront of public educational reform* 1st state to establish tax support for local public schools.

  • By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites.* US had one of the highest literacy rates.


Education

  • Most wealthy Americans opposed free education

  • But fear of an uneducated mob with the power to vote forced many to consider public education

  • The image of the school house became a common feature in many small towns

  • Students in mixed grades usually learned the “three Rs”

  • It was prohibited to teach blacks in the South


  • Horace Mann campaigned for better schools, more pay for teachers, and more time in school

  • Noah Webster the “Schoolmaster of the republic” created lessons that promoted patriotism

  • The Second Great Awakening led to the opening of many small liberal arts colleges especially in the South and West

  • Women’s education was frowned upon


Horace Mann(1796-1859)

“Father of

American Education”

R3-6


The McGuffey Eclectic Readers

  • Used religious parables to teach “American values.”

  • Teach middle class morality and respect for order.

  • Teach “3 Rs” + “Protestant ethic” (frugality, hard work, sobriety)

R3-8


Cult of Domesticity

  • The 19th century was man’s world

  • Like slaves – women were subordinate, could be legally beaten, and could not vote

  • Women were expected to create a cult of domesticity for the home

  • Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton became prominent in the women’s rights movement

  • The most conspicuous advocate was Susan B. Anthony


7.“Separate Spheres” Concept

“Cult of Domesticity”

  • A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was arefuge from the cruel world outside).

  • Her role was to “civilize” her husband andfamily.

  • An 1830s MA minister:

The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!


Early 19c Women

  • Unable to vote.

  • Legal status of a minor.

  • Single  could own her own property.

  • Married  no control over herproperty or her children.

  • Could not initiate divorce.

  • Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.


Cult of Domesticity = Slavery

The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society.

Lucy Stone

Angelina Grimké

Sarah Grimké

  • American Women’sSuffrage Assoc.

  • edited Woman’s Journal

  • Southern Abolitionists

R2-9


R2-6/7

8.Women’s Rights

1840  split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it.

London World Anti-Slavery Convention

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Lucretia Mott

1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments


  • Feminists met at Seneca Falls, New York in 1848 at the Women’s Rights Convention

  • Stanton read the “Declaration of Sentiments” – that all men and women are created equal

  • The Seneca Falls Convention was the start of the modern women’s rights

  • Before the Civil War the movement closely tied itself to the antislavery campaign.

  • After the war there was a great sense of disappointment over the lack of success for women


9.Abolitionist Movement

  • 1816 American Colonization Society created (gradual, voluntary emancipation.

British Colonization Society symbol


Abolitionist Movement

  • Create a free slave state in Liberia, WestAfrica.

  • No real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in the 1820s & 1830s.

Gradualists

Immediatists


William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879)

  • Slavery & Masonryundermined republicanvalues.

  • Immediate emancipation with NO compensation.

  • Slavery was a moral, notan economic issue.

R2-4


The Liberator

Premiere issue  January 1, 1831

R2-5


Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)

1845 The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass

1847 “The North Star”

R2-12


Sojourner Truth (1787-1883)or Isabella Baumfree

1850 The Narrative of Sojourner Truth

R2-10


Harriet Tubman(1820-1913)

  • Helped over 300 slaves to freedom.

  • $40,000 bounty on her head.

  • Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.

“Moses”


The Underground Railroad


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