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240MC Week 6 Cultural and Semiotic Analysis of Advertising Race John Keenan PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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240MC Week 6 Cultural and Semiotic Analysis of Advertising Race John Keenan [email protected] Who - Labelling What - Ethnicity Commodified; Symbolic Anhilation; Stereotypes Why. Kate Moss. Labelling. We are all ethnic. Labelling. 100% English? 1.10. Labelling.

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240MC Week 6 Cultural and Semiotic Analysis of Advertising Race John Keenan

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240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

240MC

Week 6

Cultural and Semiotic Analysis of Advertising

Race

John Keenan

[email protected]


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

  • Who - Labelling

  • What - Ethnicity Commodified; Symbolic Anhilation; Stereotypes

  • Why


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Kate Moss


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

We are all ethnic


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

100% English? 1.10


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

What lies behind the way we structure the world is, ‘not directly available to the senses … non observable … unconscious’

Strinati D 1995 An introduction to theories of popular culture London: Routledge p96


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Essentialist:

Is it natural, anatomical, chromosomal or hormonal?

Judith Butler


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Non-essentialist:

identities...are constantly in the process of change and transformation

Stuart Hall


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

Who is ‘black’?


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

EVIL

DEATH

Black

BAD

TROUBLE


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

I waz whitemailedBy a white witch,Wid white magicAn white lies,Branded a white sheepI slaved as a whitesmithNear a white spotWhere I suffered whitewater fever.Whitelisted as a whitelegI waz in de white bookAs a master of white art,It waz like white death.

People called me white jackSome hailed me as a white wog,So I joined de white watchTrained as a white guardLived off the white economy.Caught and beaten by de whiteshirts

I waz condemned to a white mass,Don’t worry,I shall be writing to de Black House.

— Benjamin Zephaniah (1958 - )


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

Such a white soul, they say

That noble preacher had.

His skin so black, they say,

His skin so black in colour

Was on the inside snow

A white lily,

Fresh milk

Cotton.

Still it might be said another way:

What a powerful black soul

That gentlest of pastors had.

What proud black passion

Burned in his heart.

What pure black thoughts

Were nourished in his fertile brain

What black love.

So colourlessly

Given.

After Martin Luther King’s Assassination

His skin was black

But with the purest soul,

White as snow

Yevtushenko


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

Solutions:

‘caucasion not ‘white’

However, we need labels for identity

we need labels to redress the balance

‘Being black in Britain is about…a process of consciousness, when colour becomes the defining factor about who you are…to be black in Britain is to share a common structural location; a racial location’

H Mirza, 1997, Black British Feminism, cited in Chris Weedon, Identity and Culture, 2004, Maidenhead: Open University Press, p.74


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Labelling

Foucault

Althusser

ethnicity

Discourses

Play

Adverts reveal, normalise and sustain racial discourses


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified

Romance – French

Passion – Italian

Reliability - German


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified

‘When race and ethnicity become commodified as resources for pleasure, the culture of specific groups, as well as the bodies of individuals, can be seen as constituting an alternative playground where members of dominating races, genders, sexual practices …affirm their power over .. the Other’

Bell Hooks, p.23


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified

‘recurrent patterns establish and continually reinforce ideas about social relationships and intercultural exchanges...At the core of this discourse are lessons about dominance and hierarchy, subordination and inequality. In their own time and place, these messages about otherness embedded within contemporary advertising are no less important as a form of public instruction than were the biblical teachings .. in other ages’

O’Barr p.75


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified

‘It is within the commercial realm of advertising that … Otherness finds expression’ bell hooks p.26


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Ethnicity Commodified


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Symbolic Annihilation

Cultivation Theory

Agenda Setting


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Notting Hill

It Ain’t Half Racist, Mum


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Symbolic Annihilation


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Symbolic Anhilation

Symbolic Annihilation

(in the USA) ‘Magazine advertisements from the 1920s to the 1960s hardly disclose any glimpse of a model whose skin color differs from the hue of the white majority’

Leonard J Davis, 1997, The Disabilities Reader, New York: Routledge, p.180

Year 2000

USA 30% of adverts contained black people

Matthew P McAllister, Television Advertising and Textual and Economic Systems, Chapter 11 of A Companion to Television, Janet Wasko (Ed) Oxford: Blackwell, 2005, p.23


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Stereotypes

3 Black Stereotypes

1. Musician

2. Athlete

3. Crime-related

But, ‘we have moved beyond the point where we can say that a single set of media images represents African Americans - or any other racial group’

David Croteau and William Hayned Media Society (3rd Ed), 2003, London: Pine Forge Press, p.10


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Reason 1: Racism

Coca-Cola

‘L’Oreal…sought to exclude non-white women from promoting its shampoo’

The Guardian 7/7/07

http://www.guardian.co.uk/france/story/0,,2120789,00.html


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Reason 1: Racism

Whereas the subjugation of women and immigrants appeared to be directly related to the impetus for mass consumption in a capitalist society , the social and economic subordination of black Americans …(and) disabled persons…was accomplished through subtle and indirect means’

Leonard J Davis, 1997, The Disabilities Reader, New York: Routledge, p.182


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

Reason 2: Economic

Low income among non-whites

http://www.poverty.org.uk/03b/index.shtml

http://www.poverty.org.uk/28/index.shtml


240mc week 6 cultural and semiotic analysis of advertising race john keenan

However...

Today (in USA):

‘middle-class blacks have become mainstream in prime-time entertainment programs. Epitomized by The Cosby Show of the 1980s, these programs portray African-American families who have succeeded in attaining a piece of the traditional ‘American Dream’. On the other hand, news coverage and documentaries about blacks tend to focus on poor African Americans…mired in drugs, crime and violence. One implicit message in these contrasting images may be that, since some blacks have clearly succeeded, the failure of other blacks is their own fault’

David Croteau and William Hayned Media Society (3rd Ed), 2003, London: Pine Forge Press, p.10


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