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Warm Up: 1/15/2013. Happy Tuesday! Video tomorrow Get to listen to some music…classical music! Looking at the spread of the enlgihtenment In your warm-up write: Where was the center of the Enlightenment? Name two basic beliefs of the philosophes.

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Warm up 1 15 2013
Warm Up: 1/15/2013

  • Happy Tuesday!

    • Video tomorrow

    • Get to listen to some music…classical music!

    • Looking at the spread of the enlgihtenment

  • In your warm-up write:

    • Where was the center of the Enlightenment?

    • Name two basic beliefs of the philosophes.

    • What were two accomplishments of women?


  • Identify how the Enlightenment spread

  • Analyze the new architecture of the 17th century

  • Listen to the classical music of the age


  • In the 1700s, Paris was the intellectual capital of Europe.

  • People flocked there to study, philosophize, and enjoy fine culture.

  • The brightest minds of this era gathered there.

  • From their circles spread the ideas of the Enlightenment.

The paris salons
The Paris Salons

  • Several wealthy women in Paris held regular social gatherings in their mansions.

  • These gatherings were called ‘salons’.

  • Philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and intellectuals met to discuss ideas and enjoy artistic performances.

Marie therese geoffrin
Marie Therese Geoffrin

  • Madame Geoffrin was the most influential salon hostess.


  • Madame Geoffrin financed the first encyclopedia to be made.

  • Denis Diderot brought together all the most current and enlightened thinking.

    • Science

    • Technology

    • Art

    • government

  • It was published in 1751.

  • The modern day WIKIPEDIA!

Ideas circulate
Ideas Circulate

  • The salons and the encyclopedias Diderot published helped spread the Enlightenment ideas to educated people all over Europe.

  • Intellectuals shared their ideas through books, letters, visits, and magazines.

  • “Never have new ideas had such rapid circulation at such long distance.”

Ideas reach middle class
Ideas reach middle class

  • Newspapers, pamphlets, and political songs.

  • Enlightenment ideas of government and equality attracted the literate middle class.

  • They had money, but not any political power.

  • They bought a lot of books about Enlightenment ideas, which helped push the movement forward.

Art and literature
Art and Literature

  • The Enlightenment is also known as the “Age of Reason”.

  • The ideals of order and reason were reflected in the arts.

    • Music

    • Literature

    • Painting

    • Architecture


  • Grand ornate style from the 1600s and early 1700s.

  • Monarchs built grand, elaborate palaces.

  • Under the influence of the Enlightenment, the style changed to Neoclassical.

Neoclassical new classic
Neoclassical (New Classic)

  • Emphasis on order and balance.

  • Artists and architects worked in a simple, elegant style that borrowed ideas from classical Greece and Rome.

  • In music, this period is called classical.

Classical music
Classical Music

  • Franz Joseph Haydn

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

  • Ludwig Van Beethoven





  • Developed new musical forms.

    • Sonata

    • Symphony


  • Gifted child who began composing music at age 5.

  • At age 12, he wrote his first opera.

  • His operas set a new standard of elegance and originality.

    • The Marriage of Figaro

    • Don Giovanni

    • The Magic Flute


  • Wrote piano music, string quartets, and stirring symphonies

  • Early works were in the same classical style as Mozart.

  • Later works carried his music into the Age of Romanticism.

  • Became deaf after publishing 32 sonatas


  • The Enlightenment also swept through palaces and royal courts.

  • Many philosophers, including Voltaire, believed that the best form of government was a monarchy in which the ruler respected the people’s rights.

Enlightened despots1
Enlightened Despots

  • Some monarchs embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected Enlightenment beliefs.

  • They were called Enlightened Despots.

    • Despots means ‘Absolute Ruler’

Enlightened despots2
Enlightened Despots

  • Supported the new ideas, but they had no intention of giving up any power.

  • They only had two desires.

    • Make their country stronger

    • Rule more effectively

  • The foremost of Europe's Enlightened despots

    • Frederick II of Prussia

    • Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria

    • Catherine the Great of Russia

Frederick ii
Frederick II

  • King of Prussia 1740-1786

  • “I must enlighten my people, cultivate their manners and morals, and make them as happy as human beings can be, or as happy as the means at my disposal permits.”

  • He committed himself to making important reforms for Prussia.

Frederick s reforms
Frederick’s Reforms

  • Religious freedoms

  • Reduced censorship

  • Improved education

  • Abolished torture

  • He did not end serfdom because he still needed support of the wealthy landowners.

  • Did not try to change the social order



Joseph ii of austria
Joseph II of Austria

  • Ruled Austria from 1780-1790

    • Legal reforms

    • Freedom of the press

    • Freedom of worship

      • Protestants, Orthodox Christians, Jews

    • Abolished serfdom

    • Ordered peasants be paid for their labor with cash.

Joseph ii
Joseph II

  • Nobles resisted the changes

  • After his death, all reforms were undone.

Catherine the great
Catherine the Great

  • Ruled Russia from 1762-1796.

  • Formed a commission to make some reforms towards religions toleration and abolishment of torture, however, the commission never accomplished their goals.

  • Peasant uprising in 1773 convinced Catherine that she needed support of her nobles, so she granted them full power over serfs.

  • Serfs lost all freedom.