Historical evolution of design in industrial arts technology education
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Historical Evolution of Design in Industrial Arts/Technology Education. Technology Education Seminar EDVT-5424 Donnie S. Coleman 22 October 2001. Reference Search.

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Historical evolution of design in industrial arts technology education

Historical Evolution of Design in Industrial Arts/Technology Education

Technology Education Seminar

EDVT-5424

Donnie S. Coleman

22 October 2001


Reference search

Reference Search

  • “Design is that area of human experience, skill, and knowledge which is concerned with man’s ability to mold his environment to suit his material and spiritual needs.” B. Archer, 1973

  • Notable Designers: Leonardo Da Vinci, Frank Lloyd Wright, Buckminster Fuller, Pierre Cardin, Gucci, Calvin Klein, ...


Renaissance era

Renaissance Era

  • Natural Philosophy of Decartes, Leibnitz, and Rousseau advocated ‘natural processes’

  • Johann Pestalozzi, Swiss Educational reformer

    • Neuhoff Industrial School in 1774

    • Goal: lessening of the poverty and discontent in the world by educating the poorer children of Switzerland

    • Manual processes of general education

    • Promotes both livelihood and intellectual development.


Pestalozzi s precepts

Pestalozzi’s Precepts

  • Desire to improve conditions of poor children in Switzerland

  • Such improvement must come through education to be permanent.

  • Schools should directly prepare children for life in the home

  • Dedication to Rousseau’s doctrine of education according to nature

  • The manual labors of children could be applied to the cost of education

  • Employment of objects and manual activities as a method of teaching traditional subjects.


Fellenburg

Fellenburg

  • Established both academic and trade schools using Pestalozzi’s methodology.

  • Academic school was comprehensive , not specifically vocational

  • Trade school made no attempt toward a liberal education, but emphasized skilled craftsmanship.

  • Manual activities seen as important elements to the education of children.


Russian system

Russian System

  • Imperial Technical School, Moscow, 1868.

    • Victor Della Vos, Director.

  • Analytical treatment of processes and methods

  • Provided specific answers to the questions:

    • What does a person need to know to do a specific job?

    • What steps of a procedure are necessary?

    • What other related knowledge must accompany the manipulative instruction?

    • What is the best method of teaching this subject?


Russian system methodology

Russian System Methodology

  • Shop operations resolved into elementary operations and taught sequentially.

  • No emphasis on construction of useful articles

  • Taught in instructional shops prior to exposing students to the construction shops

  • Systematic and efficient instruction of large numbers of students.

  • Student progress easily evaluated.

  • Strong impact on the teaching of IA/TE


Sloyd system

Sloyd System

  • Swedish: Sloyd means dexterity, manual skill, or artistic skill.

  • Traditional house sloyd refers to traditional Scandanavian home crafts, handcrafted items produced for domestic industry.

  • No connection at all with the idea of preparation for a particular trade.


Sloyd schools

Sloyd Schools

  • Industrialization in the 19th century removed the impetus to make hand crafted goods.

  • Availability of chemical dyes, yarns, and machines lead to a general decline in quality.

  • Loss of knowledge of older techniques and materials a widespread phenomenon, not just in Scandanavia.

  • Establishment of sloyd schools to preserve the tradition of hand skills and craftsmanship.

  • Items produced were sold - determined by demand, not necessarily educational value.


Sloyd in schools

Sloyd in Schools

  • Uno Cygnaeus, Finnish Lutheran preacher/teacher

  • Sloyd in primary school as part of formal education

  • No emphasis placed on analysis or design, but used cultural tradition as the basis for craft objects.

  • Course content involved making common household objects of increasing difficulty.

  • Introduction of analysis by Otto Salomon at the sloyd school in Naas, Sweden was the birth of educational sloyd.


Salomon s objectives

Salomon’s Objectives

  • To instill a taste for, and a love of, labor in general;

  • To instill respect for rough, honest, bodily labor;

  • To develop independence and self-reliance;

  • To train habits of order, exactness, cleanliness, and neatness;

  • To train the eye and sense of form; to cultivate dexterity of hand and develop touch; (Possible first trace of design?)

  • To cultivate habits of attention, industry, perseverance, and patience;

  • To promote the development of the physical powers;

  • To directly give dexterity in the use of tools;

  • To execute exact work.


Educational sloyd methodology

Educational Sloyd Methodology

  • The instruction must go from easy to difficult

  • The instruction must go from simple to complex

  • The instruction must go from the known to the unknown

  • The teaching must lay a good foundation.

  • The teacher should possess educational tact.

  • The teaching should be interesting in character.

  • The instruction should be intuitive in its character: i.e., it should be given as far as possible through the senses, especially touch and sight.

  • The teaching should be individual in character.


Sloyd methodology cont

Sloyd Methodology (cont)

  • The instructor should be a teacher and not a mere craftsmen.

  • The models must be useful from the child’s standpoint.

  • The work should not involve fatiguing preparatory exercises.

  • The work must afford variety.

  • The children must be capable of doing the work themselves.

  • The impact of sloyd education was profound, in both purpose and methodology.

  • Teachers from around the world came to Sweden to receive training in educational handcraft methods.


Manual training

Manual Training

  • Established in late 19th century as a method of meeting the demands of society and the students by incorporating manual methods into general education.

  • Objective: to offer in addition to college preparatory work, trade-related courses.

  • New type of school an immediate popular success.

  • General high schools came to add manual training courses to their curricula, a break away from tradition and acceptance of a new theory of education.

  • John Ordway of MIT imported part of the sloyd system into the U.S. Models as the basis for projects discarded in favor of drawings.


Manual arts

Manual Arts

  • Prior to 1890 there is little evidence of concern for esthetics in trade or manual training.

  • Experimentation with the basic tenets of Russian and Sloyd systems lead to divergent views in manual training.

  • Preservation activities for sloyd and other traditions lead to development of design institutes.

  • The term Manual Arts arose around 1893 with the emphasis upon creative design as an integral part of manual training.

  • The first appearance of Design as a major component of industrial education.


Manual arts methodology

Manual Arts Methodology

  • Design as integral part of instruction

  • Melding of technical skill with sensitivity to form and function.

  • Student involvement in design as well as manufacture

  • The Project was the goal and the tool skills and knowledge were a means to an end.

  • Study of media an processes as a basis of instruction, rather than industrial origin.


Industrial arts

Industrial Arts

  • Name change suggested by Charles Richards, Columbia University in 1904

  • New program adopted features significant movements

    • Russian System -- apply analytical methods to organizing teachable content derived from industry

    • Swedish Sloyd -- the theory of manual subjects as part of general education and as a craftwork tradition

    • Manual Training -- a sound course of study, occupational guidance, and vocational concepts

    • Manual Arts -- concerns for Design, handcrafts, student involvement in project planning, and production of useful articles.

    • All pursued for general educational purpose.


Technology education

Technology Education

  • Name change form IA to TE around 1984

  • ITEA Standards for Technological Literacy

    • Design mentioned in 3 of the 5 categories

    • Standard 8: The attributes of design

    • Standard 9: Engineering design.

    • Standard 10 The role of troubleshooting, R&D, invention, and innovation in problem solving.

    • Standard 11: Apply the design process.


Summary

Summary

  • Design content was explicitly stated at the origin of the Manual Arts movement.

  • Expanded to major components of Technology Education


Where to get more information

Where to get more information

  • Design Education in Schools; Bernard Aylward

  • Designing today’s manufactured products, John R. Lindbeck

  • Practical Guide to Industrial Arts Education, John R. Lindbeck

  • Standards for Technological Literacy, ITEA


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