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WELCOME BACK! . Ready? Set? THINK!!!. Sketch a political map of the United States. No. REALLY!. On a different scale…. Now sketch a map of the world. Yes, I am serious!. AGRICULTURE AND RURAL LAND USE. DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFUSION. NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION – w,w,w,w

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Welcome back

WELCOME BACK!


Ready set think

Ready? Set? THINK!!!

  • Sketch a political map of the United States.

  • No. REALLY!


On a different scale

On a different scale…

  • Now sketch a map of the world.

  • Yes, I am serious!


Agriculture and rural land use

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL LAND USE


Development and diffusion

DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFUSION

  • NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION – w,w,w,w

  • SECOND AG REVOLUTION – w,w,w,w

  • THIRD AG REVOLUTION – w,w,w,w


Ag production hearths

AG PRODUCTION HEARTHS

  • Upper SE Asian Mainland

  • Lower SE Asian Mainland

  • Eastern India

  • SWA

  • East African Highlands

  • Meso-America

  • North-Central China

  • Mediterranean Basin

  • Western Sudan

  • Andean Highlands

  • Eastern South America


Ag production variances

AG PRODUCTION VARIANCES

  • Slash and burn in Peru

  • Nigerian women spread seeds

  • Center pivot irrigation in Oregon


Ag systems in climate zones

AG SYSTEMS in CLIMATE ZONES


Agricultural evolution

AGRICULTURAL EVOLUTION

  • Hunting & Gathering

  • Shifting Cultivation

    (slash-and-burn)

  • Pastoral Nomadism


Agricultural evolution1

AGRICULTURAL EVOLUTION

  • Subsistence Ag

  • Commercial Ag

  • Mixed Crop & Livestock


Agricultural evolution2

AGRICULTURAL EVOLUTION

  • Dairy Farming

  • Grain Farming

  • Livestock Ranching


Agricultural evolution3

AGRICULTURAL EVOLUTION

  • Mediterranean Ag

  • Commercial Gardening/Fruit Farming

  • Plantation Farming


Agricultural flows

AGRICULTURAL FLOWS

  • Columbian Exchange

  • NAFTA


Von thunen model

von THUNEN MODEL

  • Originator of spatial models

  • Focused on maximizing the profit from his agricultural lands


Von thunen model1

“Isolated state” – no trade connections

Possessed only one market

Located centrally in the state

Uniform soil, climate, level of terrain

All farmers lived equal distance from market and had equal access to it

Farmers sought maximum profits

von THUNEN MODEL


Von thunen model2

von THUNEN MODEL


Von thunen model3

von THUNEN MODEL


Von thunen model4

von THUNEN MODEL


Von thunen model5

von THUNEN MODEL


Von thunen model6

von THUNEN MODEL


Third ag revolution

THIRD AG REVOLUTION

  • The complex of seed and management improvements adapted to the needs of intensive agriculture that have brought larger harvests from a given area of farmland

  • 1965-1995, world cereal production rose 90%, mostly due to increased crop yields rather than expanding cropland


Third ag revolution1

THIRD AG REVOLUTION

  • 1965-1983 average yields

  • Rice 52%; Wheat 66%;


Third ag revolution2

Advancements in PINGS (Mali) has helped delay famine and extended life expectancies

PEDS haven’t slowed down – always pushing to find new technologies

THIRD AG REVOLUTION


Third ag revolution3

THIRD AG REVOLUTION

  • HIGH INPUT – HIGH YIELD CROPS

  • New variations of seeds/plants

    • Irrigation

      • Mechanization

        • Fertilization

          • Use of pesticides

          • More food


Third ag revolution4

THIRD AG REVOLUTION

  • Irrigation has destroyed large tracts of land

  • Ground water depletion

  • Conflict between agricultural societies and urban sprawl


Characteristics of the third ag revolution

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THIRD AG REVOLUTION

  • Blending of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary sectors


Characteristics of the third ag revolution1

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THIRD AG REVOLUTION

  • Increased mechanization

  • Development of biotechnology


Hopes fears about the future

HOPES & FEARS ABOUT THE FUTURE

  • Will we be able to produce enough food for the world’s people? At what cost – economic and environmental?


Welcome back

POLITCAL GEOGRAPHY


Political definitions

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

Territoriality

  • The attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area


Political definitions1

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

Sovereignty

Principle that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states and be recognized by other states and codified by international law


Political definitions2

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

Unitary State

  • An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials


Political definitions3

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

Federal State

  • Allocation of strong power to units of local government within the country


Political definitions4

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

Democratization

The transition to a more democratic political regime


Political definitions5

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

Nation

  • a group of people who possess common cultural traits

  • Kurdistan


Political definitions6

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

  • State

  • a political entity that possesses sovereignty over an area delimited by internationally recognized boundaries

  • Mexico


Political definitions7

POLITICAL DEFINITIONS

  • Nation-state

  • a political unit that contains one principal national group that gives it its identity and defines its territory

  • Japan


Rise of nation states

RISE OF NATION-STATES

  • in response to the rise of nationalist political philosophies during the 18th century

2. humans want to be close to those of similar background

3. necessary and logical component of the transition from feudalism to capitalism

4. logical accompaniment of economic growth based on expanding technologies

5. arose from the collapse of local communities and the need for effective communication within a large unit


Growth theories

GROWTH THEORIES

RATZEL’SSEVEN LAWS OF SPATIAL GROWTH

  • Size will increase as culture develops

  • Growth of a state is subsequent to other manifestations of the growth of the people

  • Growth from a process of annexing smaller members

  • Boundaries are peripheral organs that take part in all transformations of the state


Growth theories1

GROWTH THEORIES

RATZEL’SSEVEN LAWS OF SPATIAL GROWTH

  • As state grows, it will strive to occupy some politically valuable locations

  • 6. Initial stimulus for growth is external

  • 7. Tendency to grow continually increases in intensity


Growth theories2

GROWTH THEORIES

What connection is there between these growth theories and the concepts of

Environmental Determinism and

Possiblism?


Growth theories3

GROWTH THEORIES

Wallerstein’s World Systems

  • World is divided into three spheres:

  • core

  • semi periphery

  • periphery


Colonialism and imperialism

Colonialism and Imperialism

  • Core– higher levels of education, salaries, more technology

  • Semi-periphery – transition between the two

  • Periphery – lower levels of education, salaries, less technology


Influence of ethnicity

INFLUENCE OF ETHNICITY

Ethnic homogeneity of countries vary, but the extent of a state’s cultural diversity often influences its political stability


Changes in political arrangements

CHANGES IN POLITICAL ARRANGEMENTS

Ethnic diversity can be a strong centrifugal force– leading to civil disorder, international conflict, unspeakable human rights abuses

  • Yugoslavia


Changes in political arrangements1

CHANGES IN POLITICAL ARRANGEMENTS

Centripetal Forces

Unifying tendencies, such as a widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith


Changes in political arrangements2

CHANGES IN POLITICAL ARRANGEMENTS

Supranationalism

Organization involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives


Changes in political arrangements3

CHANGES IN POLITICAL ARRANGEMENTS

Devolution

Process by which regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growth authority at the expense of central government


Boundaries

BOUNDARIES

  • Generic Boundaries

  • identified on the basis of their inherent characteristics

  • natural or physical, ethnographic or cultural, historical, geometric


Boundaries1

BOUNDARIES

  • Generic Boundaries:

  • Natural boundary

  • follows a river or mountain range

  • arguments over mineral and usage rights, bridge construction and maintenance, territory lost as a result of course changes over time


Boundaries2

BOUNDARIES

  • Ethnographic boundary

  • Cultural differences mark separation

  • Partition of India


Boundaries3

BOUNDARIES

  • Geometric

  • Using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and range


Boundaries4

BOUNDARIES

Compact State

Distance from center to any boundary does not vary significantly

Prorupted State

Compact state with a large projecting extension


Boundaries5

BOUNDARIES

Fragmented State

Includes several discontinuous pieces of territory

Perforated State

A state that completely surrounds another one


Boundaries6

BOUNDARIES

Elongated State

States with long and narrow shape


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