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Solubility Notes. Chemistry 5/5/14. Drill. Use the table from pg. 10 to give the amount of substances that will dissolve in 100 g of H 2 O: NH 3 at 10°C and 80°C Why does solubility of NH 3 decrease at higher temperatures? KCl at 10°C and 70°C

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Solubility Notes

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Solubility Notes

Chemistry 5/5/14


Drill

  • Use the table from pg. 10 to give the amount of substances that will dissolve in 100 g of H2O:

    • NH3 at 10°C and 80°C

    • Why does solubility of NH3 decrease at higher temperatures?

    • KCl at 10°C and 70°C

    • If 50 g of KCl were dissolved in 100 g of water, and it was cooled to 50°C, what kind of solution would you have?

  • HW: Back of pg. 5 (Cross out “Henry’s Law” and #9)


Objectives

  • IWBAT

    • List factors that increase rate of solution.

    • List factors that increase degree of solubility.

    • Explain dissolution of a solid in a liquid.

    • Define suspension, colloid, and emulsion.


Like dissolves like.

  • Substances with similar bonds dissolve into each other.

    • Polar & Polar

      • Water and Isopropanol (Rubbing Alcohol)

    • Polar & Ionic

      • Water and most Salts (NaCl, CaCl2, KI, etc.)

    • Nonpolar & Nonpolar

      • Nail Polish and Nail Polish Remover

      • Oil Paint and Terpentine


Oil -

No charge on the molecule

H

H

O

Water -

Separation of

Charge

Why doesn’t oil dissolve in H2O?

  • Oils are non-polar molecules.

  • Water is a polar molecule.

  • Molecules with unlike bonds do not dissolve into each other.


Animation of Salt Dissolving


Describe NaCl dissolving in H2O

  • Water is a dipole.

  • NaCl dissociates into Na+ ions and Cl- ions.

  • The - end of the H2O molecule is attracted to the Na+ ion in the salt crystal and pulls it into the water.

  • The + end of the water is attracted to the Cl- ion.


http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/chem0010/unit9/9.4_solubilityionic.htm


http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/chem0010/unit9/9.4_solubilityionic.htm


YOU ANSWER

  • What are the different ways to buy juice?

  • If you watered down a drink, what would you be doing?


Dilution and Solutions

  • Dilute vs. Concentrated:

    • Dilute – small amount of solute, large amount of solvent

    • Concentrated – small amount of solvent, large amount of solute

  • Molarity -- the measurement of the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent

    • M = n / V

    • M -- molarity

    • n -- number of moles

    • V -- total volume of solution


Mixtures that are like Solutions, but aren’t Solutions!

  • Suspension

    • Mixture where particles eventually settle to the bottom

    • Particles are MUCH bigger than a solution. They may be visible

      • ex. Chocolate is suspended in hot chocolate or chocolate milk

      • ex. Tiny particles of dirt (silt) are suspended in river or pond water


Like Solutions, but not, cont.

  • Colloid

    • Mixture containing particles of a size between suspension and true solution

    • The particles are not actually dissolved, but also not as large as a suspension’s particles.

    • Particles remain dispersed (do not settle out), but not dissolved:

      • may appear cloudy: ex. fog, aerosols, smoke, plain milk

      • may appear as something between two phases: ex. Jell-o


Suspension, Colloid, Solution (L to R)

A Solution’s particles DON’T reflect light - looks clear!

Notice that the particles have settled out of the Suspension

A Colloid’s particles reflect light

http://dl.clackamas.cc.or.us/ch105-03/similar.htm


Like Solutions, but not, cont.

  • Emulsions

    • Colloidal dispersions of liquid in liquid

    • Tiny particles of one liquid dispersed in another liquid, but NOT dissolved.

    • These are held together by an emulsifier:

      • An emulsifier causes two immiscible liquids to mix because one end is polar and one is nonpolar.

      • ex. egg in mayonnaise, soap in soapy water


Soap Molecule

Soap molecules immersed in grease stain

Nonpolar molecule of grease


The End!

How many solutions do you think you encounter on a daily basis?


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