Embedded systems development
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Embedded Systems Development. Andy Mehta November 23, 2009. What are Embedded Systems. They are Embedded ‘in’ They are not desktops Not mainframes or mini’s Automotive- engine, doors, mirrors A heating furnace controller- Thermostat A mobile phone Medical device

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Embedded systems development

Embedded Systems Development

Andy Mehta

November 23, 2009


What are embedded systems

What are Embedded Systems

They are Embedded ‘in’

They are not desktops

Not mainframes or mini’s

Automotive- engine, doors, mirrors

A heating furnace controller- Thermostat

A mobile phone

Medical device

DSP based systems

Avionics


Why use embedded systems

Why Use Embedded Systems

User functionality – portability

User convenience, comfort - HVAC, Auto, Appliances, GPS, TV remote, DVR, iPod

Low power and safety – iron, coffee maker, LED Lighting

Commercial/industrial applications

Complex features to be simplified

Replace electro-mechanical systems

Cost reduction

Quality improvement


An embedded system

An Embedded System

Inputs

Microcontroller

(uC)

Outputs


An embedded control system

An Embedded Control System

Inputs

Microcontroller

(uC)

Outputs

Feedback


Microcontroller manufacturers

Microcontroller Manufacturers

ARM – Advanced RISC Machines

Atmel

Cypress- programmable blocks

Freescale Semiconductor- uC, DSP

Intel- 8051/8052 cores

Microchip

NEC

Renasas

Sharp

ST Microelectronics

Texas Instruments- uC, DSP

Many others


Microcontrollers spectrum

Microcontrollers Spectrum

$0.15 - $0.20 Far Eastern parts

A 4-bit 4-pin $0.35 ST part

Musical gift card uC

8-bit 8K flash,1K RAM, 16-I/O

8-Bit, 256K flash, 32K RAM, 64-I/O

32-Bit, 2M Flash, 64K RAM, TPU

A high end $50 Marvell processor –GbE, USB HS

DSPs


A low end microcontroller

A Low End Microcontroller

Flash

256 x 12

I/O

(3)

Microchip

PIC10F200

Clock

Reset

Watch

Dog

Input (1)

RAM

16 Bytes


Pic10f200 microcontroller

PIC10F200 Microcontroller

33 12-bit wide instructions

2-level deep stack

4MHz precision internal clock

Sleep mode – 100nA

Internal pull-ups

3 Input/Output – direct LED drive

8-bit Timer – programmable prescaler

Options – Comparator, memory

$0.34/3K, $0.59/1


Microcontroller functionality

Microcontroller Functionality

Core processor - Voltages

Memory – Flash, RAM, EEPROM, FRAM, DDR2

Input/Output – interface voltage

Timers

Interrupts

Serial Communication- SPI, I2C, UART

USB, CAN-BUS, IR, SD-Cards

Analog – A/D, DAC, Comparator, Op-amp


A typical microcontroller

A Typical Microcontroller

RAM

Flash

EEPROM

I/O

Core

Clock

Reset

Timers

Power

Comm

Analog


Power on reset modules

Power-On Reset Modules

Internal reset

Internal and/or external reset

Programmable threshold voltage

Programmable duration

Programmable Osc startup time

Brown-out condition - programmable

Hysteresis

Watchdog timer


Battery powered applications

Battery Powered Applications

Sleep mode

Currents down to 20nA

All kinds of modes available

Reduced clock frequencies

Core options

Selective peripherals sleep mode

Wake up modes – clocks, timers, interrupts

Watchdog timer


A typical microcontroller1

A Typical Microcontroller

RAM

Flash

EEPROM

I/O

Core

Clock

Reset

Timers

Power

Comm

Analog


A high end microcontroller

A High End Microcontroller

JTAG

NEXUS

2MB Flash

64KB SRAM

64-Ch DMA

DSP

32K Cache

Freescale

32-Bit

MPC5554

MMU

32-Ch TPU

(2)

CAN Bus

(3)

A/D

40-Ch

PLL

64-Ch

I/O

32-Bit External Bus


Freescale mpc5554 uc

Freescale MPC5554 uC

132MHz, 416-Pin Plastic BGA

ECC Flash, SRAM

Interrupt controller – 286 prioritized leves

PLL – frequency modulated for EMI

Applications

Engine control

Avionics

Turbine control


Microcontroller selection criterion

Microcontroller Selection Criterion

Speed of operation, complexity – 8/16/32 Bits

Cost – HW/SW tradeoffs

Power consumption - TI, Microchip, Freescale

Memory Size – Flash, RAM, EEPROM

# of I/O

Analog – A/D, DAC, Comparator, Op-amp

Serial Communication- SPI, I2C, USB, IR, GbE

Product Family

Development tools

Timers – input capture, output compare

Environmental conditions


Marvell 88f6281

Marvell 88F6281

DDR2

Ctlr

Flash

Ctlr

USB 2.0

HS

Sheeva Core

1.2 GHz

PCI-E

2xTDM

MPEG

Audio

2xGbE

MAC

2xSATA


Embedded systems development1

Embedded Systems Development


Embedded systems development2

Embedded Systems Development

System development

Electronics

PCB Layout

Software

Mechanical

Product qualification

DFM – design for manufacturability


System development

System Development

Architecture

Complexity- MIPS required

Sub-systems interface - Master/slave

Communication - Networking protocols

Power budget

HW/SW tradeoffs

uC selection

System tests – regulatory agencies


Electronics development

Electronics Development

Design specs

Design for testability

uC and components selection

Worst case analyses

Schematics – CAD tools, Design rule checks

Simulations

Proof of concept, Prototyping

Design validation

Product qualification


Electronics development tools

Electronics Development Tools

Schematic capture- Orcad, PADS, Cadence, Mentor

Analog simulation- pSpice, LTSpice

Logic Simulation- Orcad, Cadence, Mentor

VHDL, Verilog

Worst case analyses- simulations

Proof of concept, Prototyping- PALs, FPGAs

DFMEA- UL, agencies approval

Reliability predictions - MTBF


Asics programmable logic

ASICs & Programmable Logic

Application Specific ICs

PAL, PLD, FPGA- uCs with PLDs

Gate Arrays

Standard Cells

Custom ICs

Languages- VHDL, Verilog

Functional simulation

Timing simulations

Floor planning

Back-annotation


Pcb layout

PCB Layout

CAD tools- Orcad, Protel, PADS, Allegro, Mentor

Netlist

# of layers

Mechanical outline

3D fit

Noise considerations- diff-pair, impedance-matching

Thermal considerations

DRC

Gerber output

Fabrication


Real time software development

Real Time Software Development


Software development

Software Development

Specs

Architecture

SW Design

Languages – ‘C’, C++, Assembly

OS’

Simulations

Tools – compilers, assemblers, programmers, emulators

Real time aspects - ISRs

SW/HW tradeoffs

System integration


Real time software development1

Real Time Software Development

Timers

Interrupts

Tasks

Priorities


Real time software

Real Time Software

External

Event

External

Event

Timer 1

Timer n

Micro-

Controller

Core SW

Prioritized

Interrupts

I/O

Inputs

Task 1

Task 2

Task n


Real time software development2

Real Time Software Development

Interrupts – ISRs

‘C’ v/s Assembly

Timers – input capture and output compare

Tasks and priorities

RTOS’

Worst case analysis


Software development tools

Software Development - Tools

Programmers-development, in-circuit, field

Emulators- JTAG

Simulators

Assemblers

Compilers

Linkers

Loaders

CASE tools

Version control


Case studies

Case Studies


Mobile phone user interface

Mobile Phone User Interface

Touch

Screen

Freescale

68HC05

Radio

Power

Battery

Freescale

Dragonball

68328

LCD

Driver

Graphics

LCD

Keypad

Inputs

Micro-

Phone

Speaker


Mobile phone development

Mobile Phone Development

3.5 Months total development time

Development involved

HW

SW- menus, address book

GUI – electronic ink capture

Plastics industrial design, proto tooling

Fonts

Phone made and received calls

Project successfully completed


Postal mail sorting device

Postal Mail Sorting Device

Power

Supply

Postal

Mail

Pieces

Freescale

68HCxx

Flash

RAM

PLD

Optical

Encoder

Optical

Isolation

RS232

PC

Application


Mail sorter development

Mail Sorter Development

6 Months total development time

Industrial robustness

Development involved

HW

SW- timers

Project successfully completed

Product went to production


Ebook

eBook

Rechargeable

Battery

PCMCIA

PC/104

Pentium

Processor

Xilinx

FPGA

Graphics

LCD

Video

Touch

Screen


Ebook1

eBook

6 Months total development time

Proof of concept

Development involved

HW

FPGA for orthogonal rotation of image

SW- PC Application

Industrial design- leather bound covers

Project successfully completed

Idea was discarded by the customer


1ghz fibre channel pci card

1GHz Fibre Channel PCI Card

3 Months total HW development time

SAN Storage Area Networking

1GHz Fibre Channel Bus

LSI Logic FC controller

Technician did the Orcad PCB Layout

Windows Driver development


1ghz fibre channel pci card1

1GHz Fibre Channel PCI Card

LSI Logic

Controller

FC

Transceiver

Fibre

Channel

Bus

PCI Bus


Q a session

Q&A Session


The end

The End.


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