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TUMS. Vitamins & Coenzymes. Part one. Azin Nowrouzi, PhD. History. Dumas (1871) individuals fed on pure minerals, water, proteins, fats and carbohydrates did not maintain good health. Lunin (1880) similar finding in animals, milk restored them to normal

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Vitamins & Coenzymes

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Vitamins coenzymes

TUMS

Vitamins &

Coenzymes

Part one

Azin Nowrouzi, PhD


History

History

  • Dumas (1871) individuals fed on pure minerals, water, proteins, fats and carbohydrates did not maintain good health.

  • Lunin (1880) similar finding in animals, milk restored them to normal

  • Eijkman (1897) Beri-beri occurred in those fed on polished rice. Rice-polishings cured them. ..toxin in polished rice and antitoxin in rice polishings!

  • Grijns (1901) tried to isolate toxin but did not find any. There may be a protective substance in rice polishing.

  • Pokelharing, McCollum, Hopkins(1911) Corroborated the findings of Lunin. The protective substance present in milk were named “accessory factors” by Hopkins.

  • Funk (1911-1912) isolated crystalline substance from rice polishings that could cure polyneuritis in pigeons.


Origin of the word vitamin

Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, isolated an anti-berberi substance from rice polishing.

Named it vitamine

An amine

Vital for life

Originally, it was thought these necessary compounds were all amines. Since they were vital to our health they became known as “vital amines”, ie. vitamines.

When it was discovered that some were not amines, i.e., not ' --ines', the name was changed to: vitamins

Origin of the word VITAMIN


What are vitamins

What are Vitamins?

Vitamins are micronutrients:

  • Nutritionally important organic compounds

  • Required in very small amounts.

  • Cannot be synthesized by the human body.

  • Do not enter into tissue structures unlike proteins.

  • Do not undergo degradation for providing energy unlike carbohydrates and lipids.

    Plants and animals synthesize vitamins.

    • Vitamins form through biochemical life processes of the plants and animals we eat.

  • Examples:

  • Most mammals can synthesize vitamin C; not humans and primates.

  • No mammal can synthesize B vitamins but rumen bacteria do.

  • 3.Some function as vitamins after undergoing a chemical change:

    • Provitamins (e.g., β-carotene to vitamin A).


Coenzymes cofactors and prosthetic groups

Coenzymes, Cofactors, and Prosthetic groups

  • Vitamins bind the enzyme either loosely or tightly:

    • Coenzymes are lost upon dialysis because they bind the enzyme loosely.

    • When they bind enzymes tightly, they are considered prosthetic group.

    • The term cofactor includes such compounds but also includes other molecules such as metal ions that may be necessary for enzyme activity.


Classification

Classification

  • Fat - soluble vitamins are much more soluble in fats, hydrocarbons and similar solvents than in water

    • Vitamins A, D, K, E

  • Water- soluble vitamins are much more soluble in water than in “organic solvents”.

    • C, B complex


  • Classification requirements absorption

    Classification, Requirements, Absorption

    Water-soluble

    • Absorption: at the small intestine.

    • Transported away from small intestine in blood.

    • Typically not stored; instead, kidney filters excess into urine except vitamin B6 and B12

      • Thus, important to get these vitamins daily.

      • Toxicities almost unheard of.


    Classification requirements absorption1

    Classification, Requirements, Absorption

    Oil-soluble

    • Absorption: Along with dietary fat in small intestine.

    • 40-90% absorption efficiency.

    • Transported away from small intestine in chylomicra via blood and lymph (depending on size).


    B complex vitamins

    B Complex Vitamins


    B complex general features

    B Complex - General features

    • Present in all plant and animal cells.

    • Generally act as components of coenzymes in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, especially in energy-yielding reactions.

      • Dietary requirement is closely linked to metabolic rate.

    • Absorbed by passive diffusion (except B12) in small intestine and any excess is excreted in urine i.e. there is little or no tissue storage (except B12, some folic acid).

    • Must be continually supplied in diet (or by ruminal synthesis).


    Vitamin b 1 thiamine

    Vitamin B1 - Thiamine

    • Present in tissues as thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)

    • TPP is an essential coenzyme for oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids

      • pyruvate to acetyl CoA

    • Deficiency

      • beriberi in humans

      • polyneuritis in birds

      • bracken fern poisoning in ruminants and horses

        • antithiamin activity

    Thiamine, or thiamin, sometimes called aneurin

    chemical formulaC12H17N4OS


    Functions

    Functions

    • Transketolase reactions of the Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt).

    • Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid.

    • Oxidative decarboxylation of –ketoglutaric acid.

    • TTP (thiamine triphosphate) is required for nerve function (unrelated to coenzyme activity).


    E1 uses tpp to release co 2 and produce hydroxyethyltpp hetpp

    E1 uses TPP to release CO2 and produce HydroxyethylTPP (HETPP)


    Thiamine deficiency b1 beriberi

    Thiamine Deficiency (B1) Beriberi

    Wet beriberi – dilated cardiomyopathy

    Due to peripheral dilation of arterioles

    Dry beriberi – peripheral neuropathy, atrophy


    Alcohol wernicke korsakoff syndrome

    Alcohol, Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome:

    Alcohol dilated cardiomyopathy

    • Ataxia (inability to coordinate muscular movements due to nervous disorders).

    • Confusion.

    • Memory loss/confabulation (to fill in gaps in memory by fabrication).

    • Opthalmoplegia – can’t follow light source.

    • Nystagmus-involuntary jerking of the eye.


    Vitamin b2 or g riboflavin

    Vitamin B2 or G = Riboflavin

    • Essential constituent of flavoproteins (e.g., FAD)

    • Hydrogen carrier in glycolysis, TCA and oxidative phosphorylation

    • Deficiency

      • curled toe paralysis in birds


    Deficiency symptoms

    Deficiency symptoms

    • Inappetence, poor growth, vomiting, skin eruptions and eye abnormalities in pigs.

      • Cheilosis/Angular stomatitis (fissure at the angle of the mouth)

      • Localized seborrheic dermatitis of the face

      • Vascular changes in the cornea

      • Purple smooth tongue due to loss of tongue papillae (Glossitis).

        2. Poor growth and "curled toe paralysis" in chicks.

      • The toes frequently curl inward and they may be unable to stand.

    Cheilosis/Angular stomatitis

    Glossitis


    Chemical structure

    Chemical structure

    • Isoalloxazine ring system = dimethylbenzene + pteryn

    • Ribitol (Reduced ribose) attached to N10

    Riboflavin


    Vitamins coenzymes

    FMN

    FAD

    5

    5

    1

    1

    riboflavin 5’-phosphate

    Flavokinase

    (riboflavin kinase)

    FAD

    synthetase

    FMN + ATP FAD + ppi


    Chemical structure and atom numbering of the flavin mononucleotide

    Chemical structure and atom numbering of the flavin mononucleotide


    Riboflavin functions

    Riboflavin Functions

    • Essential constituent of the

      • Flavoproteins

      • Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)

      • Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

    • These play key roles in hydrogen transfer reactions associated with

      • Glycolysis

      • TCA cycle

      • Oxidative phosphorylation.


    Dietary sources

    Dietary Sources

    • Dairy products

    • organ meats (liver and heart) but not muscle meat.

    • Green leafy plants (especially alfalfa)

    • Yeast and animal products

    • Cereals are poor sources so poultry fed cereal-based rations should receive supplemental riboflavin.


    Niacin vitamin b3

    Niacin = Vitamin B3

    • Amide derivative of nicotinic acid

      • Can be synthesized from trytophan

    • Essential constituent of NAD and NADP

    • Hydrogen carrier catalyzed by dehydrogenase enzymes

      • ATP synthesis

    • Deficiency

      • Pellagra in farm animals and humans

        • Fiery inflammation of tongue, mouth and upper esophagus

    Nicotinic acid

    Nicotinamide


    Vitamins coenzymes

    Functions:

    Active coenzymes: nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)

    nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+).

    Both are extremely important in hydrogen transfer reactions catalyzed by dehydrogenase enzymes.

    ATP synthesis, from oxidation of primary fuels (glucose, fatty acids and to a lesser extent, amino acids) (NAD+)

    Also important in reductive biosynthesis (NADP+)

    NAD+

    NADP+


    Deficiency symptoms1

    Deficiency symptoms

    1. Pellagra in farm animals and humans (fiery inflammation of tongue, mouth and upper esophagus).

    2. Poor growth, enteritis and dermatitis.

    3. Occurs in people who subsist mainly on corn which is low in both niacin and tryptophan

    4. The signs of pellagra include dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia (the three Ds) and loss of tongue papillae.

    Sources of B3

    Most non-corn-based diets contain adequate amounts of nicotinamide or its precursor, tryptophan.


    Vitamin b4 adenine

    Adenine is no longer considered a vitamin !

    purine (pyrimidine + imidazole)

    FAD

    NAD

    NADP

    CoA

    S-AdoMet 

    PAPS (Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate)

    ATP

    Vitamin B4- Adenine


    Energy charge ec within cells

    Energy charge (EC) within cells

    The energy charge can have a value ranging from 0 (all AMP) to 1(all ATP). Most cells maintain EC at a constant value with very little variation: The energy charge of most cells range from 0.8 to 0.95. As EC drops catabolic, energy producing pathways, such as Glycolysis increase in rate, while anabolic, energy consuming pathways decrease in rate. The opposite occurs as EC increases, resulting in a tight control around an optimal value, as seen in the figure. It is evident that control of these pathways has evolved to maintain the energy charge within rather narrow limits. In other words, the energy charge like the pH of a cell is buffered.


    Vitamin b5 pantothenic acid

    vitamin B5 / pantothenic acid

    • Dipeptide derivative of B-alanine and a butyric acid derivative

    • Essential constituent of coenzyme A

      • Acyl transfer

    • Coenzyme A is essential for the formation of energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from carbohydrate, protein, alcohol, and fat. Coenzyme A is also important in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, steroids, and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is essential for transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.


    Coenzyme a and acetyl coenzyme a

    Coenzyme A and Acetyl coenzyme A

    • Essential constituent of coenzyme A, Pantothenic acid combines with ATP and cysteine in the liver to generate CoA-SH.

    • CoA-SH transfers activated acyl groups, R-(C=O)-, such as acetyl group by binding them as a thioester. Acyl transfer is important in the TCA cycle and de novo fatty acid synthesis.


    Vitamin b5 deficiency

    Vitamin B5 deficiency

    • Deficiency symptoms

    • 1. Poor growth, diarrhea, loss of hair, characteristic "goose-stepping" in pigs.

    • 2. Poor growth and feather development, dermatitis in chickens.

    • In humans: headache, fatigue, impaired muscle coordination, abdominal cramps, and vomiting

    • Sources

    • Widely distributed in plants (especially legumes and cereal) and animal products.


    Lipoic acid dihydrolipoic acid dhla

    Lipoic Acid & DiHydroLipoic Acid (DHLA)

    lipoic acid = Internal disulfur of 6,8-dithiooctanoic acid.

    Lipoic Acid (LA) is part of a redox pair.

    oxidized form

    reduced form


    Structure

    Structure

    PDH = Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex


    Lipoic acid

    Lipoic acid

    • Alpha Lipoic acid is a natural substance found in certain foods and also produced in the human body.

    • Alpha Lipoic acid is a disulfide compound found naturally in mitochondria as the coenzyme for pyruvate dehydrogenase and-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.


    The coenzyme function for pyruvate dehydrogenase and ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

    The coenzyme function for pyruvate dehydrogenase and -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase


    Vitamins coenzymes

    • Clinical Uses for R Alpha Lipoic Acid

      • Perhaps the best use of R-alpha lipoic acid is as a life extension nutrient. It acts as:

        • an anti-oxidant

        • anti-glycation agent

        • blood sugar normalizer

        • mitochondria activator

        • glutathione enhancer.

    • Dosage of R Alpha Lipoic Acid

      • As a nutritional supplement, doses of 50 to 100 mg per day are generally recommended.

      • As a Therapeutic agent, higher doses may be used.

      • In Germany, dosages of 600 mg per day are prescribed for preventing the damaging effects of hyperglycemia in diabetes.

      • Larger doses, 1200 mg given intravenously, have been used to treat aminita mushroom poisoning.

    • R Alpha Lipoic Acid Side Effects and Precautions

      • Clinical research has shown no evidence of carcinogenic effects with administration of alpha lipoic acid. Serious side effects have not been observed, even at high doses. Minor side effects include skin reactions and gastrointestinal effects, such as nausea and vomiting.


    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex pdh

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH)

    The reaction is:

    Pyruvate + NAD+ +CoASH Acetyl CoA + NADH + H+ + CO2

    PDH

    5 non-protein molecules (coenzymes) required for this enzyme catalyzed reaction are:

    NAD+ and CoASH (coenzyme A); (these are present in the equilibrated reaction formula, as can be seen above)

    TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate), Lipoic acid and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) participate in the reaction but do not show up in the equilibrated reaction formula.

    E1 = Pyruvate dehydrogenase

    E2 = Dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase

    E3 = Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase


    Mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by pdh complex

    Mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by PDH complex


    Vitamins coenzymes

    E2 uses lipoic acid to transfer the hydroxyethyl group from TPP to CoASH in order to produce AcetylCoA


    Definition of terms

    Definition of terms

    • MDR = Minimal Daily Requirement

      • The minimal oral intake necessary to prevent the symptoms and signs of vitamin deficiency from appearing.

    • RDA = Recommended Daily Allowance

      • An estimate of the adequate vitamin intake in each age group.

    • Vitamin levels in foods or supplements are sometimes stated in Retinol Equivalents (REs) or in International Units (IUs).

      • for Retinol: 3 IU = 1 RE = 1µg (= 6µg carotene)

      • 10µg calciferol = 400 IU vit.D


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