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Spanish America and Brazil. Spain’s New World Empire. State and Church. Spanish America expanded rapidly after 1492 Portugal controlled Brazilian coast by 1600 Colonial administration was based on the European model Spanish Council of the Indies replaced conquistadors

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state and church
State and Church
  • Spanish America expanded rapidly after 1492
  • Portugal controlled Brazilian coast by 1600
  • Colonial administration was based on the European model
  • Spanish Council of the Indies replaced conquistadors
  • Distance from Europe meant viceroys had a degree of independence
slide4
Catholic Church pursued conversion (religion, language, culture)
  • Native resistance, depopulation meant that the Church became an urban institution (schools, universities)
colonial economies
Colonial Economies
  • American gold, silver, sugar financed European global domination
  • 1st labor systems (encomienda, mita) est. w/Amerindian labor
  • Over time, African slave trade became more important
colonial society
Colonial Society
  • European immigrants exerted disproportionate control (Peninsulares, creoles)
  • “Indian” became a racial signifier
  • Mestizos and mulattoes-mixed ancestry
  • Those w/African ancestry barred from privileged positions by 1600
slide8

English and French

Colonies in North America

english motivations
English Motivations
  • Find NW Passage to Asia
  • Rival Spanish
  • Source of raw materials, export market
  • First English colony (Roanoke, 1587) failed

Roanoke Island-The “Lost Colony”

southern colonies
Southern Colonies
  • VA Company- est. 1606
  • Jamestown Colony- f. 1607
  • New colony struggled to survive (disease, location, etc.)
slide11
Intro. of tobacco saved colony-required indentured servants, later slaves
  • Other S. colonies (MD, NC, SC, GA) also had plantation economies (tobacco, indigo, rice) and therefore slavery
middle atlantic colonies
Middle Atlantic Colonies
  • English captured New Amsterdam-1664 (renamed NY)
  • New colony linked NE and S
  • NJ-accommodated expanding pop.
  • PA-haven for Quakers
  • Economy-trade, farming
new england colonies
New England Colonies
  • 1st colonies (Plymouth, MA Bay) est. by Puritans escaping persecution
  • Economy-based on trade and farming
  • Other NE colonies (NH, CT, RI) founded due to expan. From MA
new france
New France
  • Cartier-claimed land around the St. Lawrence River for France in 1534
  • Champlain-founded Quebec as 1st Fr. colony in the New World in 1608
  • Economy depended on fur trade
  • French missionaries would spread Catholicism (Jesuits)
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