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New Governance Rules. Knowing your audience Selecting a style Crafting your message. Zeenat Jabbar. Communication Strategy. Always involves five basic considerations: Communicator : who should send this message? Audience : who should receive this message? Message : what should we say?

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New governance rules

New Governance Rules

Knowing your audience

Selecting a style

Crafting your message

ZeenatJabbar


Communication strategy
Communication Strategy

Always involves five basic considerations:

  • Communicator: who should send this message?

  • Audience: who should receive this message?

  • Message: what should we say?

  • Channel Choice: how should we send this message?

  • Cultural Context: what cultural factors will affect this attempt at communication?


Communication strategy1
Communication Strategy

As you formulate communication strategy, you should also consider:

  • Your communication objectives. What do you want from this interaction?

  • Your communication style. How will you approach your subject and your audience?

  • Your credibility. What does your audience think of you, and how will that affect their response?


Communication objectives
Communication Objectives

Defining your objectives will make you more efficient and effective as a communicator.

  • General Objective: “Improve corporate cash flow.”

  • Action Objective: “Reduce accounts receivable aging to 30 days or less.”

  • Communication Objective: “As a direct result of this letter/phone call/personal contact, this client will be motivated to pay the account.”


Communication style
Communication Style

  • Your choice of communication style will depend on two key factors:

    • Audience Involvement: Will this audience be more passive or more active as we communicate?

    • Content Control: How much control will we need over the content of this communication?

  • Four choices emerge for you to select from:

     Tell  Sell

     Consult  Join


Choosing an appropriate style
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Low High

Audience Involvement


Choosing an appropriate style1
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Low High

Audience Involvement


Choosing an appropriate style2
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Low High

Audience Involvement


Choosing an appropriate style3
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Low High

Audience Involvement


Choosing an appropriate style4
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Tell

Low High

Audience Involvement


Choosing an appropriate style5
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Sell

Tell

Low High

Audience Involvement


Choosing an appropriate style6
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Consult

Sell

Tell

Low High

Audience Involvement


Choosing an appropriate style7
Choosing an Appropriate Style

Low

Content

Control

High

Join

Consult

Sell

Tell

Low High

Audience Involvement


The tell sell styles
The Tell / Sell Styles

  • Feature lower audience involvement and higher content control.

  • Use the tell style to inform and the sell style to persuade.

  • In these situations:

    • you have already sufficient information,

    • you don’t need to hear others’ opinions or ideas,

    • you need or want to control message content yourself.


The consult join styles
The Consult / Join Styles

  • Feature higher audience involvement and lower content control

  • Use the consult style to gather information or learn from the audience. Use the join style to collaborate with members of the audience.

  • In these situations:

    • you do not have sufficient information,

    • you need to hear other’s opinions, ideas, or input,

    • you want to involve your audience in content.


Communication credibility
Communication Credibility

Five factors will generally affect your credibility:

  • Rank

  • Goodwill

  • Expertise

  • Image

  • Shared Values

    Begin by emphasizing your initial credibility and work to increase your acquired credibility with the audience.


Audience strategy
Audience Strategy

Involves answering four sets of questions:

  • Who are they?

  • What do they know?

  • What do they feel?

  • How can you motivate them?


Who are they
Who Are They?

  • Primary Audience: Who will receive your written or spoken message directly?

  • Secondary Audience: Consider any hidden audiences who will receive your message indirectly.

  • Gatekeepers: Is there someone you need to route your message through who might filter or block it?

  • Opinion Leaders: Who has significant influence over members of the audience?

  • Key Decision-Makers: Who has power to influence the outcome of the communication?


What do they know
What Do They Know?

  • How much background information do they need?

  • How much new information do they need?

  • What are their expectations and preferences?

    • Style Preferences (formal or informal, direct or indirect)?

    • Channel Preferences (paper, e-mail, face-to-face, group or individual)?

    • Length and Format Preferences (how should this message appear to your audience)?


How do they feel
How Do They Feel?

  • What’s their level of interest in your message?

  • What’s their probable bias: positive, negative, or neutral?

  • How difficult is your desired outcome for them? Will this be relatively easy for them to buy into, or somewhat difficult?


How can you motivate them
How Can You Motivate Them?

  • Shared Values and Common Ground: Begin with views and values you hold in common, then move to areas where disagreement is more likely.

  • Goodwill and Reciprocity: This is a form of bargaining. You gain a concession by granting a favor.

  • Rank and Reward/Punishment: Though inappropriate for most audiences, the removal of privileges or threats to do so may motivate the response you want.

  • Message Structure: Arrangement of your message may help through inoculation techniques, segmented actions (“foot in the door”), or two-sided arguments.


Message strategy
Message Strategy

Consider emphasis and organization.

Using the direct approach

“The committee recommends this policy for three reasons: it will be cheaper, faster, and longer lasting.”

Using the indirect approach

“Because it will be cheaper, faster, and longer lasting, the committee recommends this policy.”


The direct approach
The Direct Approach

  • Advantages of the direct approach:

    • Improves comprehension.

    • It’s audience-centered.

    • It saves time.

  • Why don’t more people use the direct approach?

    • Habit

    • Suspense

    • Academic Training

    • Effort Involved


The direct approach1
The Direct Approach

When should you consider using a direct communication approach to your audience?

  • All non-sensitive messages with no emotional overtones.

  • Sensitive messages if the audience’s bias is positive.

  • Sensitive messages if the audience is results-oriented.

  • Sensitive messages if your credibility is particularly high.


The indirect approach
The Indirect Approach

  • When should you consider using an indirect communication approach to your audience?

  • Because this approach takes longer and does not take advantage of an audience’s initial attentiveness at the beginning of a message, use it only when:

    • Sensitive message with emotional overtones and

    • Your audience’s bias is negative and

    • Your audience is analysis-oriented and

    • Your credibility is low.


Channel choice strategy
Channel Choice Strategy

Writing or Speaking?

  • Writing produces a permanent record, can be used to convey great detail, is often much more precise, and can be used for careful wording.

  • Speaking produces a richer context, including non-verbal cues, less rigidity, less permanence, no permanent record, and may be quicker.


Channel choice strategy1
Channel Choice Strategy

Formal or Informal?

  • Formal channels may be needed for legal negotiations, tend to be precise, controlled, logical, focused, organized, conclusive, decisive, and action-oriented.

  • Informal channels may be better when you need to gather new ideas; tend to be fast, interactive, uninhibited, innovative, creative, open, candid, communal, and flexible.


Channel choice strategy2
Channel Choice Strategy

Individual or Group?

  • Individualchannels help build individual relationships, gain individual responses, may be more secure or private. Example: telephone, voice mail, personal memos, letters, fax, or e-mail.

  • Groupchannels help build group relationships or identity, gain group responses (including consensus), avoid excluding people, make sure all audience members receive the message at the same time. Example: group meetings, electronic bulletin boards, news groups, videoconferences, conference calls, memos, fax, or e-mail.


Cultural strategy
Cultural Strategy

Not all cultures react to senders, messages, or channels in the same way. It’s best to consider your audience’s probable reaction from a cultural point of view.

  • Time

  • Power Distance

  • Communication Style

  • Non-verbal Mannerisms

  • Language


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