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By: Elise Merrill Sarah Titus Aislyn Vaughan. Genetic Engineering. Which one is Genetically Engineered?. How can scientists genetically alter a plant or animal? Is it harmful or beneficial to humans? Which countries use genetic engineering technology the most?

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by elise merrill sarah titus aislyn vaughan
By: Elise Merrill

Sarah Titus

Aislyn Vaughan

Genetic Engineering

questions

How can scientists genetically alter a plant or animal?

Is it harmful or beneficial to humans?

Which countries use genetic engineering technology the most?

What is the future of genetic engineering?

Questions
what is genetic engineering

“Genetic engineering physically removes the DNA from one organism and transfers the gene(s) for one or a few traits into another.”

What is Genetic Engineering?
history

Genetic Engineering started in the early 1900’s by Gregor Mendel.

1953 Watson & Crick discovered structure of DNA.

1973 Cohen & Boyer recombinant DNA technique.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3H-Uzts108

History
history continued

First transgenic animal is a mouse.

1982 The U.S Food and Drug Administration approved the first genetically engineered drug, Genentech’s Humulin.

1987 the first field tests of genetically engineered crops (tobacco and tomato) are done in the U.S.

History continued…
genetic engineering
Types of Food
  • Tobacco
  • Petunia
  • Corn (first plant)
  • Carrots
  • Potatoes
  • Tomatoes
  • Cabbage.
Genetic Engineering
xenografting

Use of human DNA to supplement animals.

Use of animals DNA to supplement humans.

Xenografting
electroporation

Jolt of electricity punctures self-repairing holes in protoplasts.

DNA gets in through these holes.

Costly.

Electroporation

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6520950-0-large.jpg

cloning1

Cloning in plants is harder because they have fewer vectors to choose from.

Ti Plasmid

Some plants that can be cloned: carrots, tomatoes, potatoes, petunias, and cabbage.

Cloning

http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/plantplasmidtechn.JPG

countries involved

United States

Japan

UK

Developing Countries associated with Genetic Engineering

New Energy Research:

Biomass Energy

Countries Involved
ge companies
GE companies

Company Global Rankings by Sector (in U.S. millions-based on 1998 revenues)

  • AVENTIS = Hoechst + Rhone Poulenc (France)Agrochemical Ranking: # 2 -- $4,675Seed Ranking: not ranked - $134 millionPharmaceutical Ranking: # 2 -- $13,650 (combined sales of Hoechst MarionRoussel and Rhone-Poulenc Rorer)
  • MONSANTO (USA) + PHARMACIA & UPJOHN=(pending - not finalized)Agrochemical Ranking: # 3 -- $4,030Seed Ranking: # 2 -- $1,800Pharmaceutical Ranking: # 9 -- $9,000 (combined sales of Pharmacia &Upjohn + Searle)

DUPONT (USA)=Agrochemical Ranking: # 4 -- $3,155Seed Ranking: # 1 -- $1,835Pharmaceutical Ranking: # 42 -- $1,109

companies continued

SYNGENTA *= Novartis + AstraZeneca (pending - not finalized)Agrochemical Ranking: # 1 -- $7,050Seed Ranking: # 3 -- $1,000Pharmaceutical Ranking: (pharmaceutical companies did not merge)# 4 AstraZeneca $12,750# 7 Novartis $11,175

DOW CHEMICAL (USA)=Agrochemical Ranking: # 7 -- $2,130Seed Ranking: not ranked - $162 millionPharmaceutical Ranking: N/A

AquaBounty Technologies: Salmon Eggs

Companies continued…
myths

You can trust Scientists that GE food is good for you and the world.

GE crops will save the world from famine.

GE crops will reduce the use of pesticides and herbicides.

Farmers will benefit from growing GE crops.

GE foods vary from non-GE foods only in the characteristic that has been modified.

GE foods have more nutritional value then normal foods.

Myths
moral issues

Religion

Environment

Health

Consumer Protection

* Food Safety Assessment

* Labeling

Moral Issues

"Our current knowledge does not provide us with the means to predict the ecological long-term effects of releasing organisms into the environment. So it is beyond the competence of the scientific system to answer such a question...” "Fears raised over DNA survival in soil". Dominion Post (Wellington); April 25, 2003, quoted by GMWatch.

rules for safety assessment

GRAS 1991 Bush Administration

FDA

Testing

Labeling

What we need to protect our health

- Scientifically proven to be safe for all.

Rules for safety assessment
slide25
General Advantages

General Disadvantages

  • Larger animals = more meat product
  • Sustainable crops
  • Farmers can gain loans.
  • Hardly any advantages for consumer.
  • Release of altered genes in environment
  • Horizontal Gene Transfer
  • Super weeds (herbicide resistant weeds)
  • GE crops may threaten beneficial insects
  • Human health
  • Unexpected harmful substances
  • Farmers- Terminator Technology
  • Productivity and profitability
  • Decreased nutritional value
future

Speed up healing

  • Proteins circulate reporting to glands
  • Bone and muscle mass increase or decrease
  • Salty substance move through the lungs
  • Amount of immune cells should be made
  • How fast hair should grow
  • Abuses with this technology
  • Athlete’s muscle mass increase for strength
  • Army with most genetic drugs in their body win the war
  • Abuses outweigh positive aspects
Future
frankenfish1

Crossing of two or more fish species.

The fish tend to be oversized and aggressive.

FDA claims its safe, but there is a hormone found in the fish that causes various types of cancers.

Farm raised V.S. Wild

Very Controversial.

“Frankenfish”
slide29

What did you find most interesting about your research?

Economic Impacts and the prohibiting human cloning.

How has what you have discovered and learned changed the way you view your life, the direction of society, or mankind?

Look out for GE products because not they are in so many different products. Realization of implications: Destroy ecosystems.

Based upon your research and your new knowledge what changes would you make or expect society to make in order to sustain the quality of life or the quality of the biosphere as a whole?

Bring awareness to the population.

What is your career track? Would you pursue a career in your topic area or just keep current with new developments as we pass into the future?

Marketing. Current. Know what stance to take regarding GE products.

Aislyn

slide30

What did you find most interesting about your research?

Regulation process of the FDA.

How has what you have discovered and learned changed the way you view your life, the direction of society, or mankind?

Depletion of resources. Diversity, not solely rely on GE as a population.

Based upon your research and your new knowledge what changes would you make or expect society to make in order to sustain the quality of life or the quality of the biosphere as a whole?

Expect society to put more testing into products that are put on the shelves. Honesty with consumer via label.

What is your career track? Would you pursue a career in your topic area or just keep current with new developments as we pass into the future?

Physical Education/Health Coaching. Current. Advocating to others to make a healthier choice.

Sarah

slide31

What did you find most interesting about your research?

The different ways scientists alter plants and animals.

How has what you have discovered and learned changed the way you view your life, the direction of society, or mankind?

It has made me fearful of what my future children will one day be eating.

Based upon your research and your new knowledge what changes would you make or expect society to make in order to sustain the quality of life or the quality of the biosphere as a whole?

I would like the government to be more truthful to the consumers. I would like to go back to small farms and produce less food; so much waste. Have Americans become more self reliant and grow their own fruits and vegetables.

What is your career track? Would you pursue a career in your topic area or just keep current with new developments as we pass into the future?

Education. I would keep current and follow along with GE engineering and introduce the topic to fellow faculty and older students.

Elise

questions1

How can scientists genetically alter a plant or animal?

  • Cloning, Mutation, Electroporation, Xenografting, and Natural Transformation
  • Is it harmful or beneficial to humans?
  • Harmful: Disease, hormones, allergens, etc.
  • Which countries use genetic engineering technology the most?
  • US, UK, Japan
  • What is the future of genetic engineering?
  • Modified, larger animals, more sustainable crops; better quality foods.
Questions
references

http://historyofsciences.blogspot.com/2008/09/history-of-genetic-engineering.htmlhttp://historyofsciences.blogspot.com/2008/09/history-of-genetic-engineering.html

Http://www.govhs.org/vhsweb/Gallery.nsf/Files/Genetic+Engineering,+a+group+project/$file/animal.html

http://bioenergy.asu.edu/photosyn/courses/bio_343/lecture/geneng.html

http://www.netlink.de/gen/fagan.html

http://frankenfish.com/

http://www.anh-usa.org/action-alert-genetically-modified-frankenfish/

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com

http://www.pfamhealth.net/filecabinet/spring01gemedsam.pdf

http://www.helium.com/items/842310-assessing-the-economic-impact-of-genetic-engineering

http://library.thinkquest.org/04apr/00774/en/txt/mythandfact.html

http://www.prorev.com/genetic.htm

http://gcep.stanford.edu/research/factsheets/engineering_cellulose.html

http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/fivegeco.cfm

"Fears raised over DNA survival in soil". Dominion Post (Wellington); April 25, 2003, quoted by GMWatch.

References
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