Development theory third world perspectives
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Development Theory: Third World Perspectives. “A culture cannot survive if it attempts to be exclusive.” Mahatma Gandhi. First World Enlightenment Positive approach to development 1 st world in dominant position Global system of capitalism. Third World ?.

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Development Theory: Third World Perspectives

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Development Theory: Third World Perspectives

“A culture cannot survive if it attempts to be exclusive.”

Mahatma Gandhi


First World

Enlightenment

Positive approach to development

1st world in dominant position

Global system of capitalism

Third World

?

Differing positions of 1st and 3rd world perspectives


Enlightenment

Positive approach to development

1st world in dominant position

Global system of capitalism

Counter-Enlightenment

Negative encounters with 1st world, e.g. colonialism

Underdog – subject to control by 1st world

Alternative economic systems, e.g., self-provisioning

Differing positions of 1st and 3rd world perspectives (cont.)


Temporal and geographical context of 3rd world development theory

  • Late 19th century Europe

  • Colonization of Asia, Latin America and Africa

  • Socialism/Marxism in Russia


Dependency Theory

Postmodernism and alternative paths to development

Phases of 3rd World Development Theory and Practice


Dependency theory

Contrast with modernization theorists

Development has deteriorated 3rd world situation

Postmodernism & alternative paths to development

Local cultures destroyed via ‘development’

Inappropriate strategies

Modernization invalid

Phases of 3rd World Development Theory and Practice


1. Dependency Theory

  • Radical/Marxist approaches to development of underdevelopment

  • Third world economy linked to first world

  • Lenin on imperialism


Role of the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)

  • Raul Prebisch, Director (1948 est.)

  • International trade exacerbates underdevelopment

  • Historical phases of colonization and trade

    • (transparency)

  • Propose import substitution


Andre Gunder Frank, Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America

The thesis by Frank was simple:

“the condition of developing countries is not the outcome of inertia, misfortune, chance, climatic conditions or whatever, but rather a reflection of the manner of their incorporation into the global capitalist system”

(Potter et al. Geographies of Development)


2. World Systems TheoryImmanuel Wallerstein

  • Global economic system linked to capitalism

  • Core, periphery and semi-periphery

    • See map

  • Account for growth of NICs


What does it mean to be developed?Postmodernism and alternative approaches to development

  • Different ways of interpreting development

    • Australian case

  • Politics of representation

    • local knowledge vs. Western scientific knowledge

  • Multiple paths to development

  • Grassroots struggles

    • The environment (The Chipko movement)

    • Political autonomy (Chiapas, Mexico)


Conclusion: A Way Forward?

  • Development by whom? For whom?

  • Dominant ideologies of development

  • Exploring the relationship among development, impoverishment, and environmental crisis


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