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Development Theory: Third World Perspectives. “A culture cannot survive if it attempts to be exclusive.” Mahatma Gandhi. First World Enlightenment Positive approach to development 1 st world in dominant position Global system of capitalism. Third World ?.

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development theory third world perspectives

Development Theory: Third World Perspectives

“A culture cannot survive if it attempts to be exclusive.”

Mahatma Gandhi

differing positions of 1 st and 3 rd world perspectives
First World

Enlightenment

Positive approach to development

1st world in dominant position

Global system of capitalism

Third World

?

Differing positions of 1st and 3rd world perspectives
differing positions of 1 st and 3 rd world perspectives cont
Enlightenment

Positive approach to development

1st world in dominant position

Global system of capitalism

Counter-Enlightenment

Negative encounters with 1st world, e.g. colonialism

Underdog – subject to control by 1st world

Alternative economic systems, e.g., self-provisioning

Differing positions of 1st and 3rd world perspectives (cont.)
temporal and geographical context of 3 rd world development theory
Temporal and geographical context of 3rd world development theory
  • Late 19th century Europe
  • Colonization of Asia, Latin America and Africa
  • Socialism/Marxism in Russia
phases of 3 rd world development theory and practice
Dependency Theory

Postmodernism and alternative paths to development

Phases of 3rd World Development Theory and Practice
phases of 3 rd world development theory and practice1
Dependency theory

Contrast with modernization theorists

Development has deteriorated 3rd world situation

Postmodernism & alternative paths to development

Local cultures destroyed via ‘development’

Inappropriate strategies

Modernization invalid

Phases of 3rd World Development Theory and Practice
1 dependency theory
1. Dependency Theory
  • Radical/Marxist approaches to development of underdevelopment
  • Third world economy linked to first world
  • Lenin on imperialism
role of the economic commission for latin america ecla
Role of the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)
  • Raul Prebisch, Director (1948 est.)
  • International trade exacerbates underdevelopment
  • Historical phases of colonization and trade
    • (transparency)
  • Propose import substitution
andre gunder frank capitalism and underdevelopment in latin america
Andre Gunder Frank, Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America

The thesis by Frank was simple:

“the condition of developing countries is not the outcome of inertia, misfortune, chance, climatic conditions or whatever, but rather a reflection of the manner of their incorporation into the global capitalist system”

(Potter et al. Geographies of Development)

2 world systems theory immanuel wallerstein
2. World Systems TheoryImmanuel Wallerstein
  • Global economic system linked to capitalism
  • Core, periphery and semi-periphery
    • See map
  • Account for growth of NICs
what does it mean to be developed postmodernism and alternative approaches to development
What does it mean to be developed?Postmodernism and alternative approaches to development
  • Different ways of interpreting development
    • Australian case
  • Politics of representation
    • local knowledge vs. Western scientific knowledge
  • Multiple paths to development
  • Grassroots struggles
    • The environment (The Chipko movement)
    • Political autonomy (Chiapas, Mexico)
conclusion a way forward
Conclusion: A Way Forward?
  • Development by whom? For whom?
  • Dominant ideologies of development
  • Exploring the relationship among development, impoverishment, and environmental crisis
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