Development theory third world perspectives
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Development Theory: Third World Perspectives. “A culture cannot survive if it attempts to be exclusive.” Mahatma Gandhi. First World Enlightenment Positive approach to development 1 st world in dominant position Global system of capitalism. Third World ?.

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Development Theory: Third World Perspectives

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Development theory third world perspectives

Development Theory: Third World Perspectives

“A culture cannot survive if it attempts to be exclusive.”

Mahatma Gandhi


Differing positions of 1 st and 3 rd world perspectives

First World

Enlightenment

Positive approach to development

1st world in dominant position

Global system of capitalism

Third World

?

Differing positions of 1st and 3rd world perspectives


Differing positions of 1 st and 3 rd world perspectives cont

Enlightenment

Positive approach to development

1st world in dominant position

Global system of capitalism

Counter-Enlightenment

Negative encounters with 1st world, e.g. colonialism

Underdog – subject to control by 1st world

Alternative economic systems, e.g., self-provisioning

Differing positions of 1st and 3rd world perspectives (cont.)


Temporal and geographical context of 3 rd world development theory

Temporal and geographical context of 3rd world development theory

  • Late 19th century Europe

  • Colonization of Asia, Latin America and Africa

  • Socialism/Marxism in Russia


Phases of 3 rd world development theory and practice

Dependency Theory

Postmodernism and alternative paths to development

Phases of 3rd World Development Theory and Practice


Phases of 3 rd world development theory and practice1

Dependency theory

Contrast with modernization theorists

Development has deteriorated 3rd world situation

Postmodernism & alternative paths to development

Local cultures destroyed via ‘development’

Inappropriate strategies

Modernization invalid

Phases of 3rd World Development Theory and Practice


1 dependency theory

1. Dependency Theory

  • Radical/Marxist approaches to development of underdevelopment

  • Third world economy linked to first world

  • Lenin on imperialism


Role of the economic commission for latin america ecla

Role of the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)

  • Raul Prebisch, Director (1948 est.)

  • International trade exacerbates underdevelopment

  • Historical phases of colonization and trade

    • (transparency)

  • Propose import substitution


Andre gunder frank capitalism and underdevelopment in latin america

Andre Gunder Frank, Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America

The thesis by Frank was simple:

“the condition of developing countries is not the outcome of inertia, misfortune, chance, climatic conditions or whatever, but rather a reflection of the manner of their incorporation into the global capitalist system”

(Potter et al. Geographies of Development)


2 world systems theory immanuel wallerstein

2. World Systems TheoryImmanuel Wallerstein

  • Global economic system linked to capitalism

  • Core, periphery and semi-periphery

    • See map

  • Account for growth of NICs


What does it mean to be developed postmodernism and alternative approaches to development

What does it mean to be developed?Postmodernism and alternative approaches to development

  • Different ways of interpreting development

    • Australian case

  • Politics of representation

    • local knowledge vs. Western scientific knowledge

  • Multiple paths to development

  • Grassroots struggles

    • The environment (The Chipko movement)

    • Political autonomy (Chiapas, Mexico)


Conclusion a way forward

Conclusion: A Way Forward?

  • Development by whom? For whom?

  • Dominant ideologies of development

  • Exploring the relationship among development, impoverishment, and environmental crisis


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