Chapter 2 planning and providing special education services
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Chapter 2 Planning and Providing Special Education Services. The Process of Special Education. Prereferral Intervention A teacher or parent may report a concern regarding differences in learning, behavior, or development

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Chapter 2 Planning and Providing Special Education Services

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Chapter 2 planning and providing special education services

Chapter 2Planning and Providing Special Education Services


The process of special education

The Process of Special Education

  • Prereferral Intervention

    • A teacher or parent may report a concern regarding differences in learning, behavior, or development

    • Screening tests may also suggest a possible disability (vision screening)

    • Provide immediate instructional and/or behavioral assistance

    • Response to intervention and Instruction (Rtii)

      • Provide immediate instructional or behavioral assistance to the teacher and student

      • Prevent referrals to special education for students whose learning or behavior is a result of not receiving appropriate instruction rather than a disability

      • Strengthens teachers’ capacity to intervene thereby reducing potential special education referrals

      • Prevent time-consuming and costly process of assessment for special education services

      • Provides IEP teams with valuable baseline data for future planning


The process of special education1

The Process of Special Education

  • Evaluation and Identification

    • All children suspected of having a disability must receive a nondiscriminatory multi-factored evaluation (MFE)

    • A multi-disciplinary evaluation team conducts the evaluation. This team includes the parent.

    • A teach or parent may request a child be evaluated for special education

    • The parent must be notified of the school’s intent to test their child

    • Parents must give their consent to the evaluation

    • Within 60 days of receiving consent the district must complete the evaluation and identify the educational needs of the child

    • A variety of assessment tools and strategies must be implemented to gather data

    • The team determines if the child is eligible for services

    • The team must also provide information about the child's educational needs and how to meet them.


The process of special education2

The Process of Special Education

  • Program Planning

    • If the team determined a child has a disability, an individualized education program (IEP) team forms.

    • The IEP team determines the what (learning goals and objectives), who (teachers and related service providers), when ( frequency of services).

    • The IEP is the centerpiece of the special education process.


The process of special education3

The Process of Special Education

  • Placement

    • The IEP team must determine the least restrictive educational environment that meets the student’s needs

    • The placement of children with disabilities is one of the most debated and often misunderstood aspects of special education and IDEA.

  • Progress Monitoring, Review, and Reevaluation

    • Ongoing monitoring of student progress – Must gather data related to achievement of goals

    • The IEP must be thoroughly and formally reviewed on an annual basis – IEP team can meet to review or modify whenever requested by a team member

    • Reevaluation – once every (3) years district must conduct MFE


Collaboration and teaming

Collaboration and Teaming

  • Collaboration

    • Teachers are better able to diagnose and solve problems in the classroom when they work together

    • Coordination - ongoing communication and cooperation to ensure that services are provided in a timely and systematic fashion (co-planning)

    • Consultation - team members provide information and expertise to one another


Collaboration and teaming1

Collaboration and Teaming

  • Teaming

    • Multidisciplinary team - composed of professionals from different disciplines who work independently of one another; each member conducts assessments, plans interventions, and delivers services

    • Team members must recognize the child as an integrated whole

    • Interdisciplinary team - characterized by formal channels of communication between members; although each professional usually conducts discipline-specific assessments, the interdisciplinary team meets to share information and develop intervention plans (speech, OT, PT, etc.)

    • Transdisciplinary teams - Members seek to provide services in a uniform and integrated fashion by conducting joints assessments, sharing information and expertise across discipline boundaries, and selecting goals and interventions that are discipline-free

    • May share roles (classroom teacher implements PT strategies)


Collaboration and teaming cont

Collaboration and Teaming (cont.)

Co-teaching – A general education teacher and a special education teacher plan and deliver instruction in an inclusive classroom. Co-teaching can take several forms…

  • One teaching/one helping – one teacher delivers instruction the other assists students

  • Parallel teaching – both teachers teach same materials to equal sized groups

  • Station teaching – both teachers present different content to two separate groups them switch

  • Alternative teaching – one teacher works with a small group to remediate, enrich, etc. and the other teacher teaches the rest of the group

  • Team teaching – both teachers share talents and teach lesson together


Individualized education program iep

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

  • IDEA requires that an IEP be developed and implemented for every student with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21

  • Individualized family service plans are developed for infants and toddlers from birth to age 3

    The IEP team must include the following members:

    • Parents

    • Regular education teachers

    • Special education teachers

    • LEA representative

    • An individual who can interpret evaluation results (psychologist)

    • Others at the discretion of the parent or school (related services)

    • The student (age 14 or older must be invited)


Iep components

IEP Components

  • The IEP must include:

    • A statement of present levels of educational performance

    • A statement of measurable annual goals

    • A statement of how the child will be assessed (monitor progress)

    • A statement of special education and related services

    • An explanation of the extent to which the student will not participate with non-disabled children

    • Individual modifications

    • The projected date for the beginning and duration of services

    • Beginning at age 16, an individual transition plan must be developed


Iep functions and formats

IEP Functions and Formats

  • IEP formats vary widely across school districts

  • The IEP is a measure of accountability for teachers and schools

  • The IEP is not the same as curriculum; IEP objectives are not comprehensive enough to cover the entire scope and sequence of what a student is to learn


Evidence based practice ebp

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)

  • Using instructional techniques that are research-based has recently become an issue in special education

    • NCLB mandates the use of scientific research results to make sure students receive the highest quality instruction

    • Reality is that many student with disabilities have received instruction that is misguided at best.

    • Questions such as defining EBP, identifying the practices should teachers use, how to disseminate information about EBPs, how to determine the validity of an EBP have not been answered.

  • Works Clearing house has identified a randomized experimental group design as a gold standard

    • Most research over the past 40 years has been single-subject and co relational research

    • Lists of programs that have met the criteria are evidence based can be found on the websites identified on page 73

  • Using Evidence-Based Practices

    • Implement the treatment as designed

    • If you must modify a program, change only one variable at a time

    • It is not recommended to integrate portions of various models

    • Test it yourself – Are students making progress?


Least restrictive environment

Least Restrictive Environment

  • LRE is the setting that is closest to a regular school program that meets the child’s special educational needs

  • LRE is the school and class a child would attend if he/she were not disabled

  • The IEP team must determine if the annual goals and short-term objectives can be achieved in the regular classroom

    • Removal from the regular classroom should take place when the severity of the disability is such that an appropriate education cannot be achieved

    • Placement must not be regarded as permanent


A continuum of services

A Continuum of Services


Inclusive education

Inclusive Education

  • Inclusion means educating students with disabilities in regular classrooms

  • Placement in a special education setting does not guarantee that a child will receive the specialized instruction he or she needs

    • Teachers may have many reading groups – individualization may be minimized

    • Some subjects are sacrificed, while others take priority

  • Cooperative learning activities provide a strategic approach for integrating students with disabilities in both the academic curriculum and the social fabric of the classroom

    • Joey Example


Characteristics of inclusive education

Characteristics of Inclusive Education

  • All students are welcomed – appropriate supports are available

  • The number of students with disabilities in a class should be proportionate to the local population (10-12%)

  • Students are educated with peers in the same age groupings

  • All students participate in shared educational experiences, while pursuing individually appropriate learning outcomes

  • Shared educational experiences take place in settings for non-disabled individuals

  • Educational experiences are designed to enhance individual life outcomes for students. Experiences seek a balance between academic-functional and social-personal.

  • FAIRNESS DOES NOT MEAN EVERYONE GETS THE SAME, RATHER FAIRNESS MEANS EVERYONE GETS WHAT THEY NEED.


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