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The Perspective of Technology Education The Second International Symposium on Educational Cooperation for Industrial Technology Education Kariya City, Japan Presenter: William E. Dugger, Jr. Senior Fellow International Technology Education Association (ITEA) & Emeritus Professor

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The Perspective of TechnologyEducation

The Second International Symposium on Educational Cooperation for Industrial Technology Education

Kariya City, Japan


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Presenter:

William E. Dugger, Jr.

Senior Fellow

International Technology Education Association (ITEA)

&

Emeritus Professor

Virginia Tech

USA


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The Study of Technology

  • Many countries in the world have been and are now implementing the study of technology.


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In the United States as well as in other countries, there is confusion about the term “technology.”


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In 2001 and 2004, The International Technology Education Association (ITEA) conducted polls which were done by the Gallup Organization on how Americans think about technology.


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In both polls, a majority of Americans (62% in 2004 and 59% in 2001) responded that science and technology are basically one and the same thing.


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When asked how important it is for high school students to understand the relationship between science and technology, 98% of the Americans stated that they thought that this was “very or somewhat important”.


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Most Americans (68% in 2004 & 67% in 2001) view technology very narrowly as being computers, electronics, and the internet.


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There was near total consensus (98% in 2004 & 97% in 2001) in the public sampled that schools should include the study of technology in the curriculum.


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What is Science?

What is Technology?


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Science seeks to understand the natural world.

National Science Education Standards, National Research Council, 1996.


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What is Technology?

  • It is the innovation, change, or modification of the natural environment in order to satisfy perceived human wants and needs. (Standards for Technological Literacy, ITEA, 2000)

  • The goal of technology is to make modifications in the world to meet human needs. (National Science Education Standards, NRC, 1996)


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What is Technology ? (Continued)

  • In the broadest sense, technology extends our abilities to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; to reach farther with our hands, voices, and senses. (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, AAAS, 1993)

  • Technology is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. (Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Know More About Technology, NAE/NRC, 2002)


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Deals with the natural world.

Is very concerned with what is(exists) in the natural world. (i.e.: Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy, Geology, etc.)

Deals with how humans modify, change, alter, or control the natural world.

Is very concerned with what can or should be designed, made, or developed from natural world materials and substances to satisfy human needs and wants

Science vs. Technology


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Is concerned with processes that seek out the meaning of the natural world by “inquiry”,“discovering what is”, “exploring”, and using“the Scientific Method”.

Is concerned with such processes that we use to alter/change the natural world such as “Invention”, Innovation”, Practical Problem Solving, and Design.

Science vs. Technology (Continued)


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While technology and science have a common denominator being the natural world, they are similar yet very different.

Technology is not any more “applied science” than science is “applied technology”.


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Techno-Science


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Technology Education

This is the school subject specifically designed to teach children about the broad field of technology.


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Technology Education (the study of technology) should NOT be confused with Information Technology or Educational (or instructional) Technology!


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So what is “Technological Literacy?”


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Technological literacy is the ability to use, manage, evaluate, and understand technology.Technology Literacy for All: A Rationale and Study for the Study of Technology (2006)


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Who is a technologically literate person?

One that understands:

  • What technology is

  • How technology is created

  • How the use of technology shapes society and in turn,

  • How society shapes the development of technology

  • A person who is comfortable with and objective about the use of technology – neither scared of it nor infatuated with it.


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Technological literacy involves:

Much more than a knowledge about computers and digital electronics.

Gaining a degree of knowledge about the nature, behavior, power, and consequences of technology from a real world perspective.


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There is a growing movement in the U. S. to teach the integrative subjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM).


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So how do we educate our citizens to be technologically literate?

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What Content should be taught in the study of technology that will provide technological literacy for all students?


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Standards for Technological Literacy (STL)(ITEA, 2000,2002/2007) presents the content for what every student should know and be able to do in order to be technologically literate.

www.iteaconnect.org


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Standards

  • STL Standards are twenty written statements about what is valued that can be used for making a judgment of quality.

  • Standards represent fundamental concepts.

  • The goal is to meet all of the standards in Grades K-12.

  • STL Standards were written around five major organizers or categories.


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Nature of Technology

  • Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics andscope of technology.

  • Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.

  • Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and the connection between technology and other fields of study.


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Technology and Society

  • Students will develop an understanding of the cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology.

  • Students will develop an understanding of the effects of technology on the environment.

  • Students will develop an understanding of the role of society in the development and use of technology.

  • Students will develop an understanding of the influence of technology on history.


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Design

  • Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.

  • Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.

  • Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.


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Abilities for a Technological World

  • Students will develop the abilities to apply the design process.

  • Students will develop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems.

  • Students will develop the abilities to assess the impact of products and systems.


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The Designed World

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use medical technologies.

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use agricultural and related biotechnologies.

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use energy and power technologies.


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The Designed World (Cont.)

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use information and communication technologies.

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use transportation technologies.


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The Designed World (Cont.)

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use manufacturing technologies.

  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use construction technologies.


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Benchmarks

Benchmarks in STL are specific requirements or enablers for each grade level (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, & 9-12) that identify what needs to be done in order to meet a given standard.


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A Sample Standard & Benchmark

Standard 11:

Students will develop abilities to apply a design process.

Grades K-2 Benchmark in Standard 11: Build or construct an object using a design process.


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In conclusion…

The power and promise of technology can be further enhanced through the study of technology to assure that all people are technologically literate in the future.


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Thank You!

William E. Dugger, Jr.

Senior Fellow and Former Director

Technology for All Americans Project

International Technology Education Association

[email protected]


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A copy of this presentation can be downloaded by going to:http://www.iteaconnect.org/Resources/PressRoom/JapanSymposium08.ppt


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