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The Internet PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Internet MCC - CIS105 Briefly describe the history of the Internet Describe generally what an Internet service provider does Describe various types techniques used by Internet search sites Describe the various types of e-commerce Describe how advertising is done on the Internet

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The Internet

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The internet l.jpg

The Internet

MCC - CIS105

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Briefly describe the history of the Internet

Describe generally what an Internet service provider does

Describe various types techniques used by Internet search sites

Describe the various types of e-commerce

Describe how advertising is done on the Internet

Describe what an intranet is and how a business uses it


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The Internet and Services

  • The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks used to provide services such as…

    • World Wide Web (WWW) – Websites

    • Email, Instant Messaging (IM)

    • Telephony – Voice over IP (VoIP)

    • Social network, newsgroups, discussion boards

    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    • E-commerce – business transactions

  • For an overview of Making Use of the Web, see pages 116-131 in the textbook Discovering Computers 2008.

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Internet - many networks connected together

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Quick Time Line

  • 1969 - ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency)

    • Government sponsored the creation of a network.

    • Scientists and military shared information.

    • Network needed to provide alternative paths in case part of the network was destroyed (war).

  • 1972 - E-mail capability added

  • 1973 – The internet went international

  • 1986 - National Science Foundation (NFS) connected its large network, NSFnet,to ARPANET.

  • 1995 – NFS transferred service providing role to private companies.

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Number of Users

  • 2002 – 567 million users

  • 2003 – 780 million usersafter 34 years (1969-2003)Compare to…

  • 2005 – US population = 295 million

  • Telephone took 91 years to reach 100 million users.

  • Television took 54 years to reach 100 million users.

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Number of Sites

  • Another way to measure the growth is by the number websites…

  • 1969 – 4 sites

  • 1971 – 20 sites

  • 1979 – 200 sites

  • 1989 – 100,000 sites

  • 2000 – 72,000,000 sites

  • Why did it grow so much faster between 1989 and 2000?

  • One reason was the number Personal Computers grew.

  • The other was the introduction of the Graphical Browser…

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Graphical Web Browser

  • A Browser is software used to navigate on the Internet (Internet Explorer, Firefox, etc.).

  • 1990 – Dr. Berners-Lee from Geneva wanted to make the links from one website to another more dynamic and easy using hyperlinks .

  • HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the language used to create web pages.

  • He described the links like a spider’s web.

  • Hence the name World Wide Web (WWW).

  • 1992 – Marc Andreessen, college student at University of Illinois and Eric J. Bina developed Mosaic – first graphical web browser for multiple platforms.

    • Graphical browser with hyperlinks and graphics.

  • 1993 – Andreessen and Ken McCarthy developed Netscape.

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Internet Service Provider (ISP)

  • An Internet Service Provider (ISP) provides the server computer and connection software for companies and individuals to connect to the Internet from their home or business (Earthlink, Qwest, Cox, Hughes, etc).

  • Users at home need a modem to connect to their ISP.

  • Dialup – over phone lines

  • DSL (digital subscriber line) - over phone lines

  • Cable – coaxial and/or fiber optic

  • Fixed Wireless – slow to catch on – Tempe, Chandler

  • Mobile Wireless – cell phones, PDA’s, laptops

  • Satellite - Two modems (uplink and downlink)

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  • TCP/IP is the communication standard (protocol) used on the Internet.

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) determines how messages are managed

    • A message sent over the Internet is divided into uniformly sized packets.

    • Each packet is labeled with its destination address.

    • At the destination the message is reassembled using the sequencing information.

  • Internet Protocol (IP) determines how communications software and equipment transport messages.

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A URL is the complete and unique address of a Web page.

Web page URL begins with http

HyperText Transfer Protocol

Domain name – address of site’s host computer

Last part of domain name is called a top-level domain

Identifies country and/or purpose of organization

URL may include folder and specific filename.


Domain name


Document name

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

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Registering a Domain Name

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the group that assigns and controls top-level domain names.

Outside the United States, the domain name also includes a country code.

For example - Australia:

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Domain Name mapped to IP Address

  • An IP address is a unique Numeric Address for each device on the Internet.

  • An IP address consists of four groups of numbers separated with a period. IP Address:

  • Domain names are mapped to IP Addresses by a Domain Name Server (DNS).

  • Domain names are meaningful and easier to remember for users. Domain:

  • Search for IP Addresses (use WhoIs Lookup):

  • Error 404 – If domain name is not found in DNS.

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User called Helpdesk because their “Internet connection was not working”.

  • Turns out the user had set the invalid URL as their homepage, so the error page was displayed every time they opened their browser .

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Web Browser Limitation

  • Browsers can process and display several formats such as HTML, gif, jpeg, JavaScript, etc.

  • However, browsers cannot handle everything.

  • Functionally is increased by using:

    • Plug-ins

    • Helpers

    • Web Programming

    • See next few slides…

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Plug-ins / Helpers

  • Software that increases browser functionality

  • Most downloaded from their own Web sites

    • Once downloaded and installed, it appears as if the browser can handle the new features.

    • The features are being processed by the plug-ins.

  • Most enhance a site’s audio/visual experience

    • Flash and QuickTime Players permit viewing sites that include quality animation

    • Adobe Acrobat Reader displays and prints documents created in Portable Document Format (PDF) format

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Web Page Programs

  • Small programs can be downloaded to run in your browser

    • Allow dynamic interaction and dynamic data

  • Scripting languages (Client Side)

    • Instructions to be interpreted and executed by your browser

    • JavaScript and VBScript are most common

  • Programming Languages (Client and Server Side)

    • Java applets and ActiveX controls are most common

    • Scripting languages that can call programs stored on the server include ASP, JSP, PHP, Perl, and others.

  • May require additional software be installed such as Java Runtime Environment (JRE)

  • Cookies – information that a program stores on your hard disk so that it can remember something about you or your process at a later time.

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Searching the Internet

  • Search Engine

    • Lets a user specify simple or complex search criteria.

    • Search engine then searches the entries in it’s database and returns a list of sites that matches the criteria.

    • Uses spider software to build database.

    • Spiders “crawl” throughout websites collecting information – can even find “hidden” files.

  • Trivia - Google was supposed to be Googol, the number 1 followed by 100 zeros

  • Internet directory – list is developed by humans rather than a spider, so entries are very selective (yellowpages).


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Evaluating the Information

  • Author

  • Sources

  • Server (who provides)

  • Objectivity (balanced?)

  • Purpose

  • Accuracy

  • Currency

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  • Basic Electronic Mail (email) needs…

    • A server with email services

    • Users need an account

    • Need a client application to access the server

  • SPAM is unsolicited e-mail.

    • The term spam is said to derive from a famous Monty Python sketch.

    • SPAM is a trademarked Hormel meat product.

  • Phishing is e-mail fraud where the perpetrator sends out legitimate-looking e-mails that appear to come from well known and trustworthy Web sites in an attempt to gather personal and financial information from the recipient (see next slide).

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Phishing Examples

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Other Communication Services

  • Social Networks – myspace, facebook

  • NewsGroups – allows posting and reading of messages to a group for everyone to read (discussion board).

  • IRC: Internet Relay Chat

    • Text Chatting in Real Time to a group, like a party line

  • Instant Messaging – to one person

  • Internet Telephony: Real-Time Voice and VideoVoIP – Voice over IP (Internet Protocol)

  • Internet Phone Services (Vonage)

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Allows for upload and download of files.

Anonymous FTP

No username or password required.

Uploading will most likely require a username and password.

Some files are compressed into an archive using a program like WinZip, so the files need to be expanded or extracted after downloading.

Self-extracting is an executable that is double-clicked to begin file extraction.

If not self-extracting, will need a compatible program to extract files.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

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Homepage / Portal

  • Homepage is the first page displayed when the browser is opened

  • A portal is a website that is supposed to be set as your homepage.

  • Webpage can be personalized so information you are interested in is displayed – stock market, sports, weather

  • May advertise referrals to businesses

  • Yahoo, Google, MySpace, etc.

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Internet Advertising

  • Many advertisements on Web sites are banner ads

  • Pop-over ads open a new window on top of your current window

  • Pop-under ads open a new window underneath your current window

  • All this advertising is to increase electronic commerce…

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Electronic Commerce

  • B2B (Business to Business)

  • B2C (Business to Consumer)

  • C2C (Consumer to Consumer)

    • – watch for fraud

    • – Free classified ads

  • Payments – SSL – Secure Sockets Layer

  • ePal is a 3rd party that handles payments.

  • Internet Taxes Freedom Act

    • No sales tax on out-of-state sales

    • But usually need to pay shipping

  • Privacy – companies must provide you their privacy policy.

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Intranets & Extranets

  • An Intranet is a private Internet-like network.

  • Uses the same technology as used for an Internet site.

  • Internal – only computers on the same network may access services – ie: Employee Information

  • Extranets allow selected customers and suppliers to have access to a company’s intranet.

  • EDI – Electronic Data Exchange

    • Standard format to exchange data (College transcripts)

  • Can usually identify an Intranet/Extranet when a username and password is required to enter.

  • Access can be restricted using firewalls and IP addresses.

    • Firewalls – hardware and software

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Want to Learn More?

  • CIS133DA – Internet / Web Dev

  • CIS235 – e-commerce

  • Certificate of Completion or Two-Year Degree in Web

  • Login