The brain
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 15

The Brain PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 104 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Brain. How, what and why??? The inner works Colette Beecher. Two Hemispheres. Main areas & systems of communication. Lower Centres : Brain stem (medulla oblongata, Pons and Mid Brain), Thalamus & Hypothalamus.

Download Presentation

The Brain

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The brain

The Brain

How, what and why???

The inner works

Colette Beecher


Two hemispheres

Two Hemispheres


Main areas systems of communication

Main areas & systems of communication

  • Lower Centres: Brain stem (medulla oblongata, Pons and Mid Brain), Thalamus & Hypothalamus.

  • Higher Centres: Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, (including Cortex of the brain, & limbic System.)

Simple reflexes,

autonomic control

Voluntary control, planning, initiation.


Incoming receiving sensory information

INCOMING:RECEIVING SENSORY INFORMATION

  • All messages heading for the cortex ( Lobes)need to go through the lower centres of the thalamus and the Higher centre of the Basal ganglia. This will include sensory information coming from vision, hearing, and taste

  • Motor messages, including touch, pressure, & proprioception (position & posture of joints, tendons and muscles) travel through the brain stem, to the Reticular formation (Basal Ganglia) to the Thalamus, signposted to specific areas of the Cortex.


Outgoing motor execution

OUTGOINGMotor execution

  • All messages sent by the higher centres (Limbic/Cortex areas to execute voluntary movement/reaction)

    will travel via

  • Basal Ganglia, Thalamus, Cerebellum and Midbrain ( Reticular Formation) before leaving the brain via the brain stem, down to the spinal cord to produce the desired movement/response.


Motor execution

Motor execution

  • All messages from the lower centres ( Thalamus, Hypothalamus ) to execute simple reflex or autonomic responses

    will travel via

    The Cerebellum, Midbrain ( Reticular Formation -BG) before leaving the brain via the lower brain stem components (Pons & medulla), down to the spinal cord to produce the desired response.


Main roles

Main roles

  • Brain stem: Involuntary respiratory, cardiac, system control.

  • Hypothalamus and pituitary gland: Involuntary temperature control, thirst, hunger, adrenaline and thyroid hormone production ( Flight/fight responses and release of energy in response to activity)

  • Thalamus: A cluster of nuclei that operate as a relay system. Messages travel through individual nuclei that will connect specifically to designated cortex areas.


Main roles1

Main Roles

  • Cerebellum: Connected both to the thalamus and basal ganglia, the cerebellum monitors the production of reflex and voluntary movement, to assist with balance, co-ordination.

  • The Cerebellum receives messages from the vestibular system (details of speed, balance, posture during movement) and then sends messages back to the cortex, so that the higher centres can adjust any motor plan to refine previous movement.


Main roles2

Main Roles

  • Basal Ganglia: Also a cluster of nuclei, however these are not necessarily adjacent to one another, nevertheless all nuclei are connected through a system of communication.

  • The main role of the basal ganglia is to initiate the release of neurotransmitters (chemical transmission) which allow messages to be sent from all areas of the lower and higher centres of the brain.

  • All messages from the cortex travel through the basal ganglia to the thalamus.


Main roles3

Main Roles

The cerebral Cortex:

Four lobes:

  • Frontal

  • Parietal

  • Occipital

  • Temporal (Lies underneath the parietal lobe, surrounding the basal ganglia and internal capsule)


Frontal lobe divisions

Frontal lobe divisions


Parietal lobe subdivisions

Parietal Lobe subdivisions


Temporal lobe subdivisions

Temporal Lobe subdivisions


Subdivisions of the occipital lobe

Subdivisions of the occipital Lobe


Limbic system

Limbic System

  • Refers to structures comprising of :

  • Amygdala: connected to the hypothalamus & midbrain

  • Hippocampus

  • Septalarea:connected to the hypothalaumus: sex drive

  • Olfactory gyri: connected to the amygdala

  • Cingulategyrus: monitor/evaluates movement & speech – executive functioning

Inhibit affective defense mechanisms

Emotional memories–

Triggered in response to smell


  • Login