the abcs of apa

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1. Angela L. Patti Colleen A. Wilkinson Fall 2009 The ABCs of APA

2. Introduction to APA Style

4. Reasons to Know and Use APA Style Coursework Academic Integrity Common Language Professionalism

5. Overview of APA Manual

6. Chapter 1 Title: Writing for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Highlights: -types of articles -ethical and legal standards in publishing -plagiarism -protecting the rights and welfare of research participants

7. Chapter 2 Title: Manuscript Structure and Content Highlights: -journal article reporting standards -manuscript elements -sample papers

8. Chapter 3 Title: Writing Clearly and Concisely Highlights: -organization (headings and seriation) -writing style -guidelines for reducing bias -grammar and usage

9. Chapter 4 Title: The Mechanics of Style Highlights: -punctuation -spelling -capitalization -abbreviations -numbers -statistical and mathematical notations

10. Chapter 5 Title: Displaying Results Highlights: -tables -figures

11. Chapter 6 Title: Crediting Sources Highlights: -when to cite -direct quoting -paraphrasing -constructing reference lists

12. Chapter 7 Title: Reference Examples Highlights: -general reference guidelines -reference examples by type

13. Chapter 8 Title: The Publication Process Highlights: -editorial process -author responsibilities

14. Highlight of Changes from the 5th to the 6th Editions

15. A few noteworthy changes: Reorganization of the manual Expanded APA Style website: www.apastyle.org Guidelines for referencing electronic sources Modified rules for references Updated examples Revised guidelines on reducing bias in language Modified rules for levels of headings Change in format rule: use two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence For other changes, see the website

16. Manuscript Format

17. General Manuscript Guidelines (p. 228-229; 88) Preferred typeface: Times New Roman Use a 12-point font size Use two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence Double-space entire manuscript Set uniform margins of at least 1 inch on all pages Use a flush left style and leave right margin uneven; do not justify Use the tab key to create a uniform indent for the first line of every paragraph In general - focus on uniformity and readability

18. Order of a Manuscript (p. 229-230) Title page Abstract Text References Tables Figures Appendices

19. Title Page (p. 23-25; 229) Manuscript title: -should summarize the main idea of the manuscript simply and with style -should be typed in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered between left and right margins, positioned in upper half of page Author: -appears on next line after title, centered -preferred format: first name, middle initial(s), last name Institutional affiliation: -appears on next line after author, centered -where the author was when research was conducted Running head: -abbreviated form of title printed at top of all pages , flush left, following the words “Running head:” -50 characters or less, all capital letters Author’s note: -can include additional information about affiliation, acknowledgements, disclaimers, etc. -see manual for specifics

20. Abstract (p. 25-27) A brief, but comprehensive summary of the contents of the manuscript Starts on a separate page after the title page, numbered page 2 See manual for specifics on what to include in an abstract

21. Text (p. 27-37) Starts on a separate page after the abstract page, numbered page 3 Type manuscript title in upper and lowercase letters, centered on the top line Begin typing introduction on the next line – do not label this section as “introduction” See manual for sections to include Use headings to organize contents of text

22. Levels of Headings (p. 62-63) Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 1) Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (Level 2) Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 3) Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4) Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 5)

23. Notes about Headings (p. 62-63) In a lowercase paragraph heading, the first letter of the first word is uppercase and the remaining words are lowercase For headings ending with a period, continue on with your paragraph after the period (on the same line of text) The number of levels of headings with vary according to the length and complexity of your manuscript For a manuscript with one level of heading, use Level 1; if two levels of heading are needed, use Levels 1 and 2; if three levels are needed, use Levels 1, 2, and 3…and so on

24. Reference Page (p. 37) Start on a new page after the end of the text Type the word “References” in uppercase and lowercase letters on the top line, centered Double-space the entire reference page and all entries Go on to additional pages as necessary More information presented on references and order of references later in this presentation

25. Additional Materials Include additional materials after the reference page(s) in the following order: -tables -figures -appendices Begin each one on a new page Label each piece clearly See manual for specifics

26. References

27. General Guidelines (p. 180; 193) Include all references on a reference page, double-spaced Use a hanging indent for all references (first line is flush left, additional lines are indented) Follow examples provided in manual If you cannot find an example in the manual which matches your particular reference, use your best judgment; be sure to include all of the important pieces of information (see next slide)

28. Reference Components (p. 183-187) Author and Editor Information Publication Date Title Publication Information Locator Information for Electronic Sources

29. Author and Editor Information (p. 184) Invert all authors’ names (last name goes first) Give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author’s name Use commas to separate authors; with two to seven authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author Be sure to keep the authors in the same order as they appear on the work Include editor information for edited books and chapters – see manual for details

30. Publication Date (p. 185) Give in parentheses the year the work was published For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, give the year followed by a comma, and then the month, month and day, or season, if available If no date is available, write “n.d.” in parentheses. Finish this element of the reference with a period after the closing parenthesis

31. Title (p. 185-186) Article or chapter title -capitalize only the first words of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns -do not italicize the title or place quotation marks around it -finish the element with a period Mental and nervous diseases in the Russo-Japanese war: A historical analysis. Periodical title: Journals, newsletters, magazines -give the periodical title in full, in uppercase and lowercase letters -italicize the name of the periodical Social Science Quarterly

32. Title (Continued, p. 185-186) Nonperiodical title: Books and reports -capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns -italicize the title -do not use a period between the title and any parenthetical information Development of entry-level tests to select FBI special agents (Publication No. FR-PRD-94-06).

33. Publication Information (p. 186-187) Periodicals: Journals, newsletters, magazines -give the volume number after the periodical title; italicize it -include the journal issue number in parentheses (not italicized) directly after the volume number if the journal is paginated by issue -follow with a comma -give the page numbers -finish the element with a period Social Sciences Quarterly, 84, 508-525. Nonperiodicals: Books and reports -give the location where the publisher is located (city and state) -follow with a colon -give the name of the publisher -finish the element with a period Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

34. Electronic Sources and Locator Information (p. 187-192) If the material was accessed electronically, you need to include locator information Include a DOI when available -a DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet -all DOI numbers begin with “10” and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash -the DOI is typically located on the first page of an article If no DOI is available, provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher (as opposed to providing database information) See manual for more information and examples

35. Reference ExampleJournal article with DOI (p. 198) Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

36. Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., … Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi: 10.1080/14622200410001676305

37. Reference Example Journal article without DOI (when DOI is not available) (p. 199) Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82. -If there is no DOI assigned and the reference was retrieved online, give the URL of the journal home page. (No retrieval date is necessary.)

38. Reference Example Magazine article (p. 200) Chamberlain, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26-29.

39. Reference Example Newspaper article (p. 200) Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. -Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp. -If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate numbers with a comma (e.g., pp. B1, B3, B5-B7)

40. Reference Example Entire book, print version (p. 203) Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

41. Reference Example Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor (p. 205) Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary /heuristic -If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition number after the title.

42. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof /lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf

43. Other Types of References There are many other types of references found in the APA manual; a few examples are: -online magazine article -online newspaper article -special issue or section in a journal -electronic version of a print book -book chapter, print version -proceedings published regularly online -Master’s thesis -Doctoral dissertation -review of a book -audiovisual media (video, podcast, TV show, music recording, photograph, etc.) -message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group -blog post -legal document

44. Order of References (p. 181-183) Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author, and then go to initials if necessary Follow rules for special cases… Nothing precedes something: Brown, J. R., precedes Browning A. R., even though i precedes j in the alphabet If the author(s) is/are the same, order the references chronologically, with the earliest first: Upenieks, V. (2003). Upenieks, V. (2005).

45. Order of References (Continued, p. 181-183) One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname (even if the multiple-author work was published first) Alleyne, R. L. (2001). Alleyne, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (1999). If there are multiple authors, but the first author is the same, alphabetize by the second author; if the second author is the same, go to the third, and so on: Boockvar, K. S., & Burack, O. R. (2007) Boockvar, K. S., Carlson LaCorte, H., Giambanco, V. Friedman, B., & Siu, A. (2006) If the author is an agency, association, etc., alphabetize the reference by the name of that group e.g. American Psychological Association If there is no author, move the title to the author position, and alphabetize the entry by the first significant word of the title

46. Citations

47. Citations - Overview Citations appear in the text of your paper and are used to identify information and ideas that are not your own Citations briefly identify the source of your information so that readers can find the appropriate reference(s) in your reference list How you cite depends on the number of authors that contributed to the information you are using and the type of reference You should cite whenever the ideas, theories, or research of others has directly influenced your work (p. 169) You should cite when you are directly quoting and when you are paraphrasing All citations in your text must appear in your reference list and all references in your reference list must appear as citations in your text

48. Plagiarism (p. 170) Do NOT claim the words and/or ideas of another as your own Give credit where credit is due Use quotation marks to indicate the exact words of another (directly quoting) Credit a source each time you take an idea from it even if it is not word-for-word (paraphrasing)

49. Direction Quotation Example (p. 171) Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns” (p. 541), contributing to the overall climate of negativity. -enclose quoted material in quotation marks -be sure to indentify author, date, and page number

50. Direct Quotation Alternate Example (p. 171) Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles in palliative care, whereby “medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team” (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112). -same information is identified, but author is included in parentheses

51. Direct Quotation – Block Quote (p. 171) If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks See manual for details

52. Paraphrasing How To: -Read through all the material you are using to prepare your paper -Synthesize the information -Write your paper, providing citations for your paraphrased material Include a citation every time you paraphrase – this includes when you summarize something you’ve read, rearrange the sentences in a paragraph, rearrange the words in a sentence, or change some words in a sentence Basically, if the idea wasn’t yours originally and/or it is not absolutely accepted common knowledge in your field, you need a citation You do not need a page number with your citation when paraphrasing, but it is recommended if it will help your reader

53. Paraphrasing Examples Example 1- A researcher uses an alternating treatment design to compare the effects of two or more instructional packages on one target behavior (Alberto & Troutman, 1991). Example 2- According to Alberto and Troutman (1991), a researcher uses an alternating treatment design to compare the effects of two or more instructional packages on one target behavior.

54. One Work by One Author (p. 174) Use author-date method If the author’s name appears as part of the narrative, cite only the year of publication in parentheses Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples… Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003)… For subsequent citations of the same reference within the same paragraph, omit the year

55. One Work by Multiple Authors (p. 175) When a work has two authors, cite both names every time; use “and” in text; use “&” within parentheses When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all names the first time the references occurs in text; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) shortens to… Kisangau et al. (2007) When a work has six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by “et al.” for the first and all citations Use the same rule from previous slide for citing the year (only the first time a reference appears in a paragraph)

56. Other Citation Cases (p. 176-177) See the manual for information on how to cite groups as authors, authors with the same surname, and works with no identified author See Table 6.1 (p. 177) for a very helpful chart on citation styles

57. Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses (p. 177) Order the citations of two or more works within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list Separate each reference with a semicolon Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998)…

58. Secondary Sources (p. 178) Secondary sources are books, journal articles, and other works which rely on and reference an original work Best practice: Only use a secondary source when the primary source of the information is unavailable to you Give the secondary source in the reference list In text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003)…

59. Closing

60. Closing Comments This presentation was only meant to serve as an overview of APA writing style; you should spend some additional time looking through your manual and using the information provided to improve your writing We do NOT recommend that you use this PowerPoint, or any other APA “cheat sheets” as direct references - always refer to the manual

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