Survey Design and Cross cultural Issues. Avinish Chaturvedi Carlos Torelli. Agenda. Brief Review of the readings Methods and Data Analysis for Cross-Cultural Research Discussion. Heine et al., (2002).
An apparent no difference is actually a significant difference
The design of a generalizability study is usually a replication of the original study.
- When the goals of cross cultural studies are defined as both delineating and explaining cross cultural differences, generalizability studies capitalize on first and often ignore the second.
These are often based on a less elaborate theoretical framework than are generalizability studies
- These studies test a theory of cross cultural differences. Theory driven studies are more systematic. Such studies are designed and carried out to critically test a hypothesis. These studies provide powerful tets of theories of cross cultural differences, which is one of the main goals of cross cultural research.
- These studies take observed cross cultural level or structural differences as their starting point and scrutinize these differences either by exploring their antecedents or by testing interpretations of these differences.
Studies adopting this sampling scheme often fall into the category of psychological differences studies
Cultures are selected in a systematic, theory guided fashion. These studies usually fall into the categories of theory driven or generalizability studies. Cultures are selected in this procedure because they represent different values on a theoretical continuum
It involves the sampling of a large number of cultures randomly. This strategy is preferable for generalizability studies, in which a universal structure or a pan cultural theory is evaluated.
How does choice of cultures in a research design changes when:
a. we are looking for similarities
b. we are looking for differences.
interaction between two
A priori and post priori techniques.
Similarly prior and post hoc remedies can be used to alleviate problems of sample incomparability.
Application of a monotrait multimethod matrix in order to examine the influence of response procedures is useful
What are the other ways through which this effect can be minimized??
In which scenario, each of above three technique becomes useful?
The major criterion in the choice of application, adaptation and assembly is the type of bias expected. If there are serious concerns that construct bias could play a role, adaptation or assembly should be chosen.
Indigenization which aims at maximizing the appropriateness of psychological theories and instruments to local cultures, will often amount to the assembly of new instruments
Translation and back translation
Translation is more than producing text in another language. Translators should know or be made aware of the linguistic and cultural differences that could influence responses to translated or adapted instruments.