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Sub Saharan Africa- Gender on the Agenda for Shared Growth Amanda Ellis Doing Business Gender Manager & Lead Gender Specialist World Bank Group Accra, Ghana. November 2007 Doing Business indicators 2007 2008 2009 Starting a business Dealing with licenses Employing workers

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Doing Business indicators

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Sub Saharan Africa-Gender on the Agenda for Shared GrowthAmanda EllisDoing Business Gender Manager& Lead Gender SpecialistWorld Bank GroupAccra, Ghana. November 2007


Doing Business indicators

2007

2008

2009

  • Starting a business

  • Dealing with licenses

  • Employing workers

  • Registering property

  • Enforcing contracts

  • Getting credit

  • Trading across borders

  • Protecting investors

  • Paying taxes

  • Closing a business

  • Update of 2007

  • Add 3 countries

  • Reformer’s Club:

    • - 11 case studies

  • Add Not paying bribes

  • Add Using infrastructure

  • Research program on regulations and business opportunities for women


Business friendly regulation leads to more registered businesses and start-ups

Business density

(registered firms per capita)

Business entry

(new firms in % of registered firms)

Easiest

Most difficult

Easiest

Most difficult

Countries ranked by ease of doing business, quintiles

Countries ranked by ease of doing business, quintiles

Source: Doing Business database


…and higher shares of female entrepreneurs and women in the labor force

Female Entrepreneurs

(% of entrepreneurs)

Female unemployment

(% of male unemployment)

Most difficult

Most difficult

Easiest

Easiest

Countries ranked by ease of doing business, quintiles

Source: Doing Business database, ILO


0.33 x 0.5

Top 30 on the Ease of Doing Business — 2007


West Africa had the highest number positive reforms

Number of reforms

Benin

Burkina

Faso

Cote d’Ivoire

Gambia

Ghana

Guinea-Bissau

Mali

Mauritania

Niger

Nigeria

Sierra Leone

Mauritius

Mozambique

Lesotho

Madagascar

South Africa

Seychelles

Kenya

Djibouti

Rwanda

Uganda

Burundi

Malawi

Tanzania

DRCongo


… albeit with regional differences

Intensity of Reforms


Ghana: top reformer in 2006/7

2006

Time reduced from 169 to 34 days

Procedure eliminated:

Registration of deed and land commission

2007

Assessment and payment of Stamp duty

Submit application for Title Certificate

Preparation of transfer document

Doing Business 2008


Most complex regulations in Africa

Average Rank, Ease of Doing Business


Sub-Saharan Africa passed on the pace of reform

Countries with at least one positive reform, in %


Top 10 reformers in Africa


African countries reformed in a wide variety of areas

Starting a business

Dealing with licenses

Trading across borders

Paying taxes

Enforcing contract

Dealing with licenses

Getting credit information

Getting credit legal rights

Protecting investors

Employing workers

Closing a business


Starting a business can be even harder for women

  • DRC – different rules

  • Uganda – women disproportionately disadvantaged by cumbersome procedures (less mobile, fewer contacts, seen as ‘soft targets’ by officials)

Source: Kirkpatrick and Lawson, 2004.


Women 3x more likely to be informal

Source: Removing Barriers to Enterprise Formation in Liberia: Gender Analysis, 2007


Becoming a top reformer by using good practices


Stronger legal rights, better credit information: more credit

Private Credit as a share of GDP

Private Credit as a share of GDP


African women entrepreneurs face additional obstacles

  • Custom law often prevails over civil law, meaning women have little land ownership

  • In collateral based banking systems this means less access to credit


Banking profile in Tanzania

Source: Finmark Trust 2007


Africa is the toughest place to get credit – women especially unable to leverage excellent microfinance repayment rates


Top 10 reformers in property registration

3 Top reformers in Africa

“On average the top 10 reformers cut the time and cost by a third.”

Ghana

Niger

Burundi

AND Reforms for Women in

LESOTHO

where married women can now transfer property)

2006

2007

Doing Business 2008


Highest tax rates still in Africa


Women entrepreneurs are especially affected

Women perceive tax and customs as greater constraints to business growth

Source: Ellis et al. Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya, 2007


Taking the best practice in Africa: “Africana” is # 8

The hypothetical country of the “United States of Africa” has the ease of:

  • Mauritius’ entry (#8)

  • Kenya’s licensing (#9)

  • Uganda’s employing workers (#11)

  • Ghana’s property registration (#26)

  • Botswana’s access to credit (#26)

  • South Africa’s investors Protection (#9)

  • Mauritius tax payments (#11)

  • Cape Verde trade (#51)

  • Tanzania’s contracts Enforcement (#35)

  • Namibia’s bankruptcy procedures (#47)

32

20

16

13

8

3

1

Source: Doing Business database (using a country’s top performance per indicator)


Doing Business/WBG Gender Action Plan partnership

  • 2 year research program – promotes shared growth, supports MDG 3

  • 3 key components:

    • Identify laws & regulations that discriminate against women

      * Global database

    • Investigate which reforms on business regulations have largest impact on opportunities for women

    • Prepare case studies on women entrepreneurs (their successes & challenges)


Doing Business/WBG Gender Action Plan partnership

THANK YOU to Doing Business Gender donors Australia, Canada, Germany, Iceland, Norway, UK

www.doingbusiness.org

www.worldbank/gender.org

www.ifc.org/gender

  • CONTACT – aellis@worldbank.org


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