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Sub-Saharan Africa - Gender on the Agenda for Shared Growth - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Sub Saharan Africa- Gender on the Agenda for Shared Growth Amanda Ellis Doing Business Gender Manager & Lead Gender Specialist World Bank Group Accra, Ghana. November 2007 Doing Business indicators 2007 2008 2009 Starting a business Dealing with licenses Employing workers

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Sub Saharan Africa-Gender on the Agenda for Shared GrowthAmanda EllisDoing Business Gender Manager& Lead Gender SpecialistWorld Bank GroupAccra, Ghana. November 2007

doing business indicators
Doing Business indicators

2007

2008

2009

  • Starting a business
  • Dealing with licenses
  • Employing workers
  • Registering property
  • Enforcing contracts
  • Getting credit
  • Trading across borders
  • Protecting investors
  • Paying taxes
  • Closing a business
  • Update of 2007
  • Add 3 countries
  • Reformer’s Club:
    • - 11 case studies
  • Add Not paying bribes
  • Add Using infrastructure
  • Research program on regulations and business opportunities for women
business friendly regulation leads to more registered businesses and start ups
Business friendly regulation leads to more registered businesses and start-ups

Business density

(registered firms per capita)

Business entry

(new firms in % of registered firms)

Easiest

Most difficult

Easiest

Most difficult

Countries ranked by ease of doing business, quintiles

Countries ranked by ease of doing business, quintiles

Source: Doing Business database

and higher shares of female entrepreneurs and women in the labor force
…and higher shares of female entrepreneurs and women in the labor force

Female Entrepreneurs

(% of entrepreneurs)

Female unemployment

(% of male unemployment)

Most difficult

Most difficult

Easiest

Easiest

Countries ranked by ease of doing business, quintiles

Source: Doing Business database, ILO

west africa had the highest number positive reforms
West Africa had the highest number positive reforms

Number of reforms

Benin

Burkina

Faso

Cote d’Ivoire

Gambia

Ghana

Guinea-Bissau

Mali

Mauritania

Niger

Nigeria

Sierra Leone

Mauritius

Mozambique

Lesotho

Madagascar

South Africa

Seychelles

Kenya

Djibouti

Rwanda

Uganda

Burundi

Malawi

Tanzania

DRCongo

ghana top reformer in 2006 7
Ghana: top reformer in 2006/7

2006

Time reduced from 169 to 34 days

Procedure eliminated:

Registration of deed and land commission

2007

Assessment and payment of Stamp duty

Submit application for Title Certificate

Preparation of transfer document

Doing Business 2008

most complex regulations in africa
Most complex regulations in Africa

Average Rank, Ease of Doing Business

sub saharan africa passed on the pace of reform
Sub-Saharan Africa passed on the pace of reform

Countries with at least one positive reform, in %

african countries reformed in a wide variety of areas
African countries reformed in a wide variety of areas

Starting a business

Dealing with licenses

Trading across borders

Paying taxes

Enforcing contract

Dealing with licenses

Getting credit information

Getting credit legal rights

Protecting investors

Employing workers

Closing a business

starting a business can be even harder for women
Starting a business can be even harder for women
  • DRC – different rules
  • Uganda – women disproportionately disadvantaged by cumbersome procedures (less mobile, fewer contacts, seen as ‘soft targets’ by officials)

Source: Kirkpatrick and Lawson, 2004.

women 3x more likely to be informal
Women 3x more likely to be informal

Source: Removing Barriers to Enterprise Formation in Liberia: Gender Analysis, 2007

stronger legal rights better credit information more credit
Stronger legal rights, better credit information: more credit

Private Credit as a share of GDP

Private Credit as a share of GDP

african women entrepreneurs face additional obstacles
African women entrepreneurs face additional obstacles
  • Custom law often prevails over civil law, meaning women have little land ownership
  • In collateral based banking systems this means less access to credit
banking profile in tanzania
Banking profile in Tanzania

Source: Finmark Trust 2007

slide19
Africa is the toughest place to get credit – women especially unable to leverage excellent microfinance repayment rates
top 10 reformers in property registration
Top 10 reformers in property registration

3 Top reformers in Africa

“On average the top 10 reformers cut the time and cost by a third.”

Ghana

Niger

Burundi

AND Reforms for Women in

LESOTHO

where married women can now transfer property)

2006

2007

Doing Business 2008

women entrepreneurs are especially affected
Women entrepreneurs are especially affected

Women perceive tax and customs as greater constraints to business growth

Source: Ellis et al. Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya, 2007

taking the best practice in africa africana is 8
Taking the best practice in Africa: “Africana” is # 8

The hypothetical country of the “United States of Africa” has the ease of:

  • Mauritius’ entry (#8)
  • Kenya’s licensing (#9)
  • Uganda’s employing workers (#11)
  • Ghana’s property registration (#26)
  • Botswana’s access to credit (#26)
  • South Africa’s investors Protection (#9)
  • Mauritius tax payments (#11)
  • Cape Verde trade (#51)
  • Tanzania’s contracts Enforcement (#35)
  • Namibia’s bankruptcy procedures (#47)

32

20

16

13

8

3

1

Source: Doing Business database (using a country’s top performance per indicator)

doing business wbg gender action plan partnership
Doing Business/WBG Gender Action Plan partnership
  • 2 year research program – promotes shared growth, supports MDG 3
  • 3 key components:
    • Identify laws & regulations that discriminate against women

* Global database

    • Investigate which reforms on business regulations have largest impact on opportunities for women
    • Prepare case studies on women entrepreneurs (their successes & challenges)
doing business wbg gender action plan partnership25
Doing Business/WBG Gender Action Plan partnership

THANK YOU to Doing Business Gender donors Australia, Canada, Germany, Iceland, Norway, UK

www.doingbusiness.org

www.worldbank/gender.org

www.ifc.org/gender

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