Is Perceived Self-Efficacy a Universal Construct?
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Is Perceived Self-Efficacy a Universal Construct? Psychometric Findings from 22 Cultures Ralf Schwarzer & Urte Scholz Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

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Is Perceived Self-Efficacy a Universal Construct?

Psychometric Findings from 22 Cultures

Ralf Schwarzer & Urte Scholz

Freie Universität Berlin, Germany


Perceived Self-Efficacy is the belief that one can perform a novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning


  • Perceived Self-Efficacy novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning

  • FACILITATES:

  • GOAL SETTING

  • EFFORT INVESTMENT

  • PERSISTANCE IN FACE OF BARRIERS

  • RECOVERY FROM SETBACKS


General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning

Ralf Schwarzer & Matthias Jerusalem (1995)

Examples:

I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough.

Thanks to my resourcefulness, I know how to handle unforeseen situations.

If I am in trouble, I can usually think of a solution.

I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events.


The General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioningSource of the English Version:

Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.

The full 10-item scale can be copied from the web

http://www.healthpsych.de


The novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning

Samples


Frequency Distribution broken down by Nation novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning


Age Distribution novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning


Mean Age per Nation (N = 13,461) novel or difficult task, or cope with adversity -- in various domains of human functioning



Reliability Sample


Scale Reliabilities (Cronbach’s Sample) for all Nations



1.00 Sample

GSE

.40

.50

.56

.56

.47

.48

.53

.37

.55

.50

SE1

SE2

SE3

SE4

SE5

SE6

SE7

SE8

SE9

SE10

.43

.55

.50

.36

.30

.43

.36

.38

.31

.38

Unidimensionality of the

General Perceived Self-Efficacy Construct





Validity Sample


Self-Efficacy Sum Score of German Teachers (N = 302) Sample

Proactive Coping

.55

Self-Regulation

.58

Procrastination

-.56

Emotional Exhaustion

-.47

Depersonalisation

-.44

Lack of Accomplishment

-.75

Correlations Between Self-Efficacy And Other Constructs


Self-Efficacy Sum Score of Sample

Costa Ricans

Women

(N = 393)

Men

(N = 258)

Anxiety

-.43

-.42

Depression

-.46

-.33

Optimism

.60

.52

Expected Social Support

.43

.30

Correlations Between Self-Efficacy And Other Constructs


CONCLUSIONS Sample

The Self-Efficacy Scale Is Reliable And Unidimensional Across Cultures.

www.healthpsych.de


References Sample

Schwarzer, R. (Ed.) (1992). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

Schwarzer, R. & Born, A. (1997). Optimistic self-beliefs: Assessment of general perceived self-efficacy in thirteen cultures. World Psychology, 3, 177-190.

Schwarzer, R., Bäßler, J., Kwiatek, P., Schröder, K., & Zhang, J. X. (1997). The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: Comparison of the German, Spanish, and Chinese versions of the General Self-Efficacy scale. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 69-88.

Schwarzer, R., Born, A., Iwawaki, S., Lee, Y.-M., Saito, E., & Yue, X. (1997). The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: Comparison of the Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese and Korean versions of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 40, 1-13.

Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.

Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (Eds.) (1999). Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen. Dokumentation der psychometrischen Verfahren im Rahmen der Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des Modellversuchs Selbstwirksame Schulen [Scales for the assessment of teacher and student characteristics.] Berlin, Germany: Freie Universität Berlin.

Schwarzer, R., Mueller, J., & Greenglass, E. (1999). Assessment of perceived general self-efficacy on the Internet: Data collection in cyberspace. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 12, 145-161.

Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S. & Tang, C. (2000). Teacher burnout in Hong Kong and Germany: A cross-cultural validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 13, 309-326.

Zhang, J. X. & Schwarzer, R. (1995). Measuring optimistic self-beliefs: A Chinese adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychologia, 38, 174-181.


Source of this Presentation: Sample

Scholz, U., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., Sud, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, No. 3, 242-251.


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