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Chapter 12 Political Organization Chapter Questions What roles do politics, law and religion play in regulating human behavior? What are the major forms of political organization and how are they related to other features of culture and society? Egalitarian Societies

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Chapter 12

Political Organization


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Chapter Questions

  • What roles do politics, law and religion play in regulating human behavior?

  • What are the major forms of political organization and how are they related to other features of culture and society?


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Egalitarian Societies

  • Access to resources, power, or prestige.

  • Number of social positions.

  • Bands and tribes.


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Rank Society

  • Institutionalized differences in prestige.

  • Kinship group- source for survival.

  • Horticulture or pastoral societies.

    • Chiefdoms

    • The Bigman


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Stratified Society

  • Social and economic inequality.

  • Denied access to basic resources.

  • Characterized by differences.

  • Organized by market systems.

  • Agriculture and industrialism.

    • State system


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Power vs. Authority

  • Political Ideology- reasons to conform:

    • Deep belief

    • Expected benefit

    • Fear

    • No alternative


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Women and Political Offices

Multicultural differences in gender political power.

  • Yoruba of Nigeria

  • Nigeria - Igbo

  • Mende - women power in roles as mothers


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Law Social Control & Conflict Management

Ways societies deal with abnormal behavior and conflict:

  • Internalization of norms & values

    • Stratified & chiefdoms

  • Informal mechanisms

    • Gossip and ridicule

    • Witchcraft accusations

    • Avoidance

    • Supernatural sanctions


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4 Types of political structures:Band Societies

  • Small group of people (20 to 50)

  • Related by blood or marriage

  • Live together- territory they forage

  • Egalitarian

  • Decision-making is by consensus.

  • Leaders- elderly.

  • Leaders- persuasion.

  • Sharing and generosity.


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Band Societies: Social Order

  • Maintained by gossip, ridicule, and avoidance.

  • Violations of norms= sins.

  • Offenders controlled- ritual means (like public confessions).

  • Offender- a patient not a criminal.


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Tribal Societies

  • Members-same ancestor.

  • Pastoralists and horticulturalists.

  • Egalitarian

  • Leadership: Bigman


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Chiefdom Societies

Characteristics:

  • Monumental architecture

  • Distinct ceremonial centers

  • Elaborate grave goods- social status

  • Larger settlements by smaller villages

  • Cultivators and pastoralists


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State Societies

  • Central government with monopoly over the use of force.

  • More populous, heterogeneous, and powerful.

  • Able to organize large populations for coordinated action.

  • Defend against external threats.


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Rise of State System

  • Nation & State

  • Childe’s voluntaristic theory

  • Carneiro’s coercive theory


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