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Modern Protist Diversity. Plant Clades. Plant Clades. Phylum/Division Bryophyta. Phylum/Division Pterophyta. Phylum/Division Anthophyta. Phylum/Division Coniferophyta. The ancestor of all plants was a green alga

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Plant clades1
Plant Clades

Phylum/Division Bryophyta

Phylum/Division Pterophyta

Phylum/Division Anthophyta

Phylum/Division Coniferophyta


From algae to plants

  • The ancestor of all plants was a green alga

  • Green algae have plant-like chloroplasts, plant-like cell walls, and a plant-like energy storage molecule (starch)… etc.

  • The ancestor of plants probably was a green alga that lived whole or partially in very shallow water, perhaps susceptible to periodic drying up

  • Those algae that could continue to metabolize despite not being completely covered with water presumably possessed a selective advantage—including shading those algae restricted to water

  • The first roots were stems (stipes) that physically connected out-of-water portions of algae with still-in-water portions

  • Water diffused over short stems to keep above-water, actively photosynthesizing tissues from desiccating

From Algae to Plants


Chara
Chara

Gametangia

Antheridium

Oogonium


The challenges of land

Algae:

  • Get minerals and water from surrounding water

  • Have their bodies supported by surrounding water

  • Their sperm and spores swim through the water

    Plants:

  • Get their Minerals and Water from soil

    • Soil is subject to desiccation

    • Soil also is opaque to sunlight

  • Do not have their weight supported by surrounding water

  • Do not have, or have less water for sperm and spores to swim through

    To survive on land, plant ancestors had to address these challenges

The Challenges of Land



Plant innovations

Waxy cuticles (water proofing)

Stomata (holes in above)

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen (non-motile sperm carrier; also male gametophyte)

Seeds (embryo carrier)

Flowers

Fruit

Plant Innovations



Plant innovations1
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit




Plant innovations2
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit




Guard cells
Guard Cells

no Air in,

no Water out

Air in,

Water out


Plant innovations3
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Dominant sporophyte

vasculature

Dominant Sporophyte


Plant innovations4
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Vasculature etc

90% of water passed up through Xylem

is transpired out of plant through stomata

Vasculature (etc.)

Photosynthate moves down from leaves,

Minerals and Water move up from roots


Plant innovations5
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Cellulose cell walls
Cellulose  Cell Walls


Lignin woody tissue
Lignin  Woody Tissue


Fungi aerobic decay

“White rot fungi (such as this species) primarily digest lignin leaving the whitish strands of cellulose behind… brown rot fungi digest cellulose and leave the crumbling brown lignin behind.”

Fungi  Aerobic Decay


Coal anaerobic decay
Coal  Anaerobic Decay


Plant innovations6
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit

Alternation of

Generations


Alternation of generations

Diploid phase

Syngamy

Meiosis

Gametes

Spores

Haploid phase

Alternation of Generations



Syngamy
Syngamy

Isogametes

Anisogametes

Oogamy


Chara only zygote is diploid
Chara – Only Zygote is Diploid

Zygote

Gametangia

Antheridium

Oogonium


Delaying meiosis

Development of the sporophyte prior to

meiosis

Diploid parent

(Sporophyte)

Meiosis

(delayed)

Diploid zygote

Haploid Spores

Sperm

(gamete)

Egg

( gamete)

Haploid parent

(Gametophyte)

Delaying Meiosis


Fruit and seeds

Fruit and Seeds

Pericarp

the fruit wall (derived from the ovary of the pistil) which is composed of the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp (the three layers are not always recognizable, eg. dry fruit)


Parts of a fruit
Parts of a fruit

  • Peach

  • Endocarp

    the innermost layer of the pericarp (often hard, stony or papery) 

  • Mesocarpthe middle layer of the pericarp (often fleshy)

  • Exocarp  

    the outermost layer of the pericarp (often like a skin or peel).


Parts of a fruit1
Parts of a fruit

  • Rind--Lemon

  • tough, leathery covering on manyfruits either composed of the exocarp (melon) or the exocarp and mesocarp (orange).


Parts of a fruit2
Parts of a fruit

  • Apple

  • accessory tissue

  • fruit parts not directly derived from the ovary, for example, receptacle tissue of pomes (apple) and the husks of nuts (acorn, pecan).


Simple fruit
Simple Fruit

legume or pod

  • derived from a single flower with a single ovary (pistil).

  • dry dehiscent fruit--pericarp splits open at maturity.legume  or  pod contains one locule that splits along two sutures. (bean, pea, peanut, mimosa)


Follicle
follicle

  • contains one locule that splits along one or more suture. (larkspur, sweet gum,  magnolia)

Follicle--Sweet Gum and Magnolia


Capsule
capsule

  • contains three or more locules that split along three or more sutures. (okra, golden rain tree, tallow tree)

Okra


Dry indehiscent fruit
Dry indehiscent fruit-

  • pericarp dries, but does not split open at maturity.

  • Samara

    one or two seeded with pericarp  flattened into wings.  (maple, ash)

Ash


Caryopsis or grain
Caryopsis  or  grain

  • one seeded fruit with seed fused to the pericarp. (wheat, corn, grain)


Achene
Achene

  • one seeded fruit with seed free from pericarp.

Sunflower


Nut

  • similiar to an achene, but one seeded by abortion and partially (acorn) or entirely  enclosed by a husk. (pecan, walnut)

Pecan and Oak


Fleshy fruit
Fleshy fruit

  • pericarp does not dry at maturity

  • Berry

    entire pericarp is fleshy. (grape, tomato)

Tomato


Pepo

  • a type of berry, with the exocarp as a hard rind. (melon, cucumbers, squash)

Squash


Hesperidium
Hesperidium

  • a type of berry, with the exocarp and mesocarp as a hard rind and the endocarp composed of juice vesicles. (citrus-orange, lemon, lime)

Lemon


Drupe or stone
Drupe  or  stone

  • a single-seeded fruit with a skin-like exocarp (fuzzy or smooth) fleshy mesocarp and a hard stony endocarp. (peach, cherry, plum, coconut)

Peach


Pome

  • a paper-like pericarp containing a thickened, fleshy receptacle or hypanthium. (apple, pear, pomengranate)



Aggregate fruit
Aggregate Fruit

  • a fruit derived from a single flower with many pistils. (blackberry, strawberry)

Strawberry


Multiple fruit
Multiple Fruit

  • a fruit derived from several or multiple flowers clustered along a common axis. (mulberry, fig, pineapple

Pineapple


More spores fertilization

Spores

Zygote

Gametophyte

Spores

Sporophyte

Gametophyte

More Spores / Fertilization


Ulva

  • Green Algae

  • Alternation of Generations

  • Isomorphic

  • Isogamic


Laminaria
Laminaria

  • Brown Algae

  • Alternation of Generations

  • Heteromorphic

  • Oogamic

  • Conspicuous Sporophyte


Bryophyte life cycle
Bryophyte Life Cycle

  • Plant (modified green algae)

  • Alternation of Generations

  • Heteromorphic

  • Oogamic

  • Conspicuous Gametophyte



Liverwort life cycle

2N

Syngamy

Gametes

Meiosis

Spores

N

Liverwort Life Cycle


Hornwort bryophyte
Hornwort (Bryophyte)

Sporophyte

Gametophyte






Plant innovations7
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit





Homospory
Homospory

Most Ferns are Homosporous


Heterospory
Heterospory

Seed-Bearing Plants often are Heterosporous



Plant innovations8
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit



Heterospory1
Heterospory

This is Pollen!



Plant innovations9
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Ovule to seeds
Ovule to Seeds

Sporangium

Gametangium

Sporophyte

(grandparent)

Gametophyte

(haploid parent)

Progeny

(next generation)


Seeds
Seeds

Dicot

Monocot





Plant innovations10
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit










Plant innovations11
Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit












Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~gen155/lectures/l34%20webversion.ppt

Note that the previous fruit lecture is from: http://www.ideal.upm.edu.my/~ideal/tugasan/bacelor/BGY3201_presentation1.ppt




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