Plant diversity i the colonization of land
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Modern Protist Diversity. Plant Clades. Plant Clades. Phylum/Division Bryophyta. Phylum/Division Pterophyta. Phylum/Division Anthophyta. Phylum/Division Coniferophyta. The ancestor of all plants was a green alga

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Modern Protist Diversity

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Modern protist diversity

Modern Protist Diversity


Plant clades

Plant Clades


Plant clades1

Plant Clades

Phylum/Division Bryophyta

Phylum/Division Pterophyta

Phylum/Division Anthophyta

Phylum/Division Coniferophyta


From algae to plants

  • The ancestor of all plants was a green alga

  • Green algae have plant-like chloroplasts, plant-like cell walls, and a plant-like energy storage molecule (starch)… etc.

  • The ancestor of plants probably was a green alga that lived whole or partially in very shallow water, perhaps susceptible to periodic drying up

  • Those algae that could continue to metabolize despite not being completely covered with water presumably possessed a selective advantage—including shading those algae restricted to water

  • The first roots were stems (stipes) that physically connected out-of-water portions of algae with still-in-water portions

  • Water diffused over short stems to keep above-water, actively photosynthesizing tissues from desiccating

From Algae to Plants


Chara

Chara

Gametangia

Antheridium

Oogonium


The challenges of land

Algae:

  • Get minerals and water from surrounding water

  • Have their bodies supported by surrounding water

  • Their sperm and spores swim through the water

    Plants:

  • Get their Minerals and Water from soil

    • Soil is subject to desiccation

    • Soil also is opaque to sunlight

  • Do not have their weight supported by surrounding water

  • Do not have, or have less water for sperm and spores to swim through

    To survive on land, plant ancestors had to address these challenges

The Challenges of Land


Evolution of first plant

Evolution of First Plant


Plant innovations

Waxy cuticles (water proofing)

Stomata (holes in above)

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen (non-motile sperm carrier; also male gametophyte)

Seeds (embryo carrier)

Flowers

Fruit

Plant Innovations


Timing of innovations

Timing of Innovations


Plant innovations1

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Waxy cuticle

Waxy Cuticle


Flaccid wilted

Flaccid / Wilted


Plant innovations2

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Gas exchange

Gas Exchange


Stomata

Stomata


Guard cells

Guard Cells

no Air in,

no Water out

Air in,

Water out


Plant innovations3

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Dominant sporophyte

vasculature

Dominant Sporophyte


Plant innovations4

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Vasculature etc

90% of water passed up through Xylem

is transpired out of plant through stomata

Vasculature (etc.)

Photosynthate moves down from leaves,

Minerals and Water move up from roots


Plant innovations5

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Cellulose cell walls

Cellulose  Cell Walls


Lignin woody tissue

Lignin  Woody Tissue


Fungi aerobic decay

“White rot fungi (such as this species) primarily digest lignin leaving the whitish strands of cellulose behind… brown rot fungi digest cellulose and leave the crumbling brown lignin behind.”

Fungi  Aerobic Decay


Coal anaerobic decay

Coal  Anaerobic Decay


Plant innovations6

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit

Alternation of

Generations


Alternation of generations

Diploid phase

Syngamy

Meiosis

Gametes

Spores

Haploid phase

Alternation of Generations


Alternation of generations1

Alternation of Generations


Syngamy

Syngamy

Isogametes

Anisogametes

Oogamy


Chara only zygote is diploid

Chara – Only Zygote is Diploid

Zygote

Gametangia

Antheridium

Oogonium


Delaying meiosis

Development of the sporophyte prior to

meiosis

Diploid parent

(Sporophyte)

Meiosis

(delayed)

Diploid zygote

Haploid Spores

Sperm

(gamete)

Egg

( gamete)

Haploid parent

(Gametophyte)

Delaying Meiosis


Fruit and seeds

Fruit and Seeds

Pericarp

the fruit wall (derived from the ovary of the pistil) which is composed of the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp (the three layers are not always recognizable, eg. dry fruit)


Parts of a fruit

Parts of a fruit

  • Peach

  • Endocarp

    the innermost layer of the pericarp (often hard, stony or papery) 

  • Mesocarpthe middle layer of the pericarp (often fleshy)

  • Exocarp  

    the outermost layer of the pericarp (often like a skin or peel).


Parts of a fruit1

Parts of a fruit

  • Rind--Lemon

  • tough, leathery covering on manyfruits either composed of the exocarp (melon) or the exocarp and mesocarp (orange).


Parts of a fruit2

Parts of a fruit

  • Apple

  • accessory tissue

  • fruit parts not directly derived from the ovary, for example, receptacle tissue of pomes (apple) and the husks of nuts (acorn, pecan).


Simple fruit

Simple Fruit

legume or pod

  • derived from a single flower with a single ovary (pistil).

  • dry dehiscent fruit--pericarp splits open at maturity.legume  or  pod contains one locule that splits along two sutures. (bean, pea, peanut, mimosa)


Follicle

follicle

  • contains one locule that splits along one or more suture. (larkspur, sweet gum,  magnolia)

Follicle--Sweet Gum and Magnolia


Capsule

capsule

  • contains three or more locules that split along three or more sutures. (okra, golden rain tree, tallow tree)

Okra


Dry indehiscent fruit

Dry indehiscent fruit-

  • pericarp dries, but does not split open at maturity.

  • Samara

    one or two seeded with pericarp  flattened into wings.  (maple, ash)

Ash


Caryopsis or grain

Caryopsis  or  grain

  • one seeded fruit with seed fused to the pericarp. (wheat, corn, grain)


Achene

Achene

  • one seeded fruit with seed free from pericarp.

Sunflower


Plant diversity i the colonization of land

Nut

  • similiar to an achene, but one seeded by abortion and partially (acorn) or entirely  enclosed by a husk. (pecan, walnut)

Pecan and Oak


Fleshy fruit

Fleshy fruit

  • pericarp does not dry at maturity

  • Berry

    entire pericarp is fleshy. (grape, tomato)

Tomato


Plant diversity i the colonization of land

Pepo

  • a type of berry, with the exocarp as a hard rind. (melon, cucumbers, squash)

Squash


Hesperidium

Hesperidium

  • a type of berry, with the exocarp and mesocarp as a hard rind and the endocarp composed of juice vesicles. (citrus-orange, lemon, lime)

Lemon


Drupe or stone

Drupe  or  stone

  • a single-seeded fruit with a skin-like exocarp (fuzzy or smooth) fleshy mesocarp and a hard stony endocarp. (peach, cherry, plum, coconut)

Peach


Plant diversity i the colonization of land

Pome

  • a paper-like pericarp containing a thickened, fleshy receptacle or hypanthium. (apple, pear, pomengranate)


Dry and fleshy fruits

Dry and fleshy fruits


Aggregate fruit

Aggregate Fruit

  • a fruit derived from a single flower with many pistils. (blackberry, strawberry)

Strawberry


Multiple fruit

Multiple Fruit

  • a fruit derived from several or multiple flowers clustered along a common axis. (mulberry, fig, pineapple

Pineapple


More spores fertilization

Spores

Zygote

Gametophyte

Spores

Sporophyte

Gametophyte

More Spores / Fertilization


Plant diversity i the colonization of land

Ulva

  • Green Algae

  • Alternation of Generations

  • Isomorphic

  • Isogamic


Laminaria

Laminaria

  • Brown Algae

  • Alternation of Generations

  • Heteromorphic

  • Oogamic

  • Conspicuous Sporophyte


Bryophyte life cycle

Bryophyte Life Cycle

  • Plant (modified green algae)

  • Alternation of Generations

  • Heteromorphic

  • Oogamic

  • Conspicuous Gametophyte


Bryophyte clades

Bryophyte Clades


Liverwort life cycle

2N

Syngamy

Gametes

Meiosis

Spores

N

Liverwort Life Cycle


Hornwort bryophyte

Hornwort (Bryophyte)

Sporophyte

Gametophyte


Pteridophyte clades

Pteridophyte Clades


Lycophytes

Lycophytes


Recall bryophyte life cycle

Recall Bryophyte Life Cycle


Pterophyte life cycle

Pterophyte Life Cycle


Plant innovations7

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Comparative life histories

Comparative Life Histories


Comparative life histories1

Comparative Life Histories


Some seed bearing plant anatomy

Some Seed-Bearing-Plant Anatomy


Homospory

Homospory

Most Ferns are Homosporous


Heterospory

Heterospory

Seed-Bearing Plants often are Heterosporous


Homo vs heterospory

Homo vs. Heterospory


Plant innovations8

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Pollen

Pollen


Heterospory1

Heterospory

This is Pollen!


Pollen pollen tube

Pollen & Pollen Tube


Plant innovations9

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Ovule to seeds

Ovule to Seeds

Sporangium

Gametangium

Sporophyte

(grandparent)

Gametophyte

(haploid parent)

Progeny

(next generation)


Seeds

Seeds

Dicot

Monocot


Recall pterophyte life cycle

Recall Pterophyte Life Cycle


Coniferophyte life cycle

Coniferophyte Life Cycle


Coniferophyte life cycle1

Coniferophyte Life Cycle


Plant innovations10

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Flower

Flower


Flower cross section

Flower Cross Section


Pigmented sepals

Pigmented Sepals


Evolutoin of flower structure

Evolutoin of Flower Structure


Recall coniferophyte life cycle

Recall Coniferophyte Life Cycle


Anthophyte life cycle

Anthophyte Life Cycle


Double fertilization

Double Fertilization


Seven cell gametophyte

Seven-Cell Gametophyte


Plant innovations11

Plant Innovations

Waxy cuticles

Stomata

Dominant sporophyte

Vascular tissue

Woody tissue

Pollen

Seeds

Flowers

Fruit


Fruit

Fruit


Flower to fruit

Flower to Fruit


Monocot vs dicot

Monocot vs. Dicot


Monocot

Monocot


Dicot

Dicot


Overview bryophytes moss

Overview: Bryophytes (moss)


Overview pterophytes ferns

Overview: Pterophytes (ferns)


Overview coniferophytes pines

Overview: Coniferophytes (pines)


Overview anthophytes flowering

Overview: Anthophytes (flowering)


Link to next presentation

Link to Next Presentation


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~gen155/lectures/l34%20webversion.ppt

Note that the previous fruit lecture is from: http://www.ideal.upm.edu.my/~ideal/tugasan/bacelor/BGY3201_presentation1.ppt


Fruit1

Fruit


Fruit2

Fruit


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