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Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through H 2 and V2G-based Energy Storage. February 9 th , 2009. Team BANANA Glenn Catlin, Dan Esposito, Colin Manasse , Tim Miller, Will Reid. Renewable vs. Fossil Fuel Electricity. The not-so-good news…. The good news……….

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Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through H 2 and V2G-based Energy Storage

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Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Offsetting Renewable Energy Intermittency in Delaware through

H2 and V2G-based Energy Storage

February 9th, 2009

Team BANANA

Glenn Catlin, Dan Esposito, Colin Manasse, Tim Miller, Will Reid


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Renewable vs. Fossil Fuel Electricity

The not-so-good news….

The good news……….

Data taken from: B.Sovacool. Energy Policy. 36 (2008)


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Renewable Intermittency:

Giggity-

Gigga-Watts

Image modified from: http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/03-04/sustainable_cities/images/casestudy/wind%20output.gif


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

A Solution: Energy Storage

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

A Solution: Energy Storage

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off

Renewables-Based Electric Utility Set-up:

Doesn’t come with an On/off switch.


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

A Solution: Energy Storage

Conventional Electric Utility Set-up:

On

On/off

Switch

Off

Renewables-Based Electric Utility Set-up:

Doesn’t come with an On/off switch.


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Effect of Storage: Load Leveling

Jackpot!

Constant electricity production from Renewables


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Our Assignment

Make this happen in DE by 2019:

Some Questions:

How much can we get in DE? 20%? 40%?

What if we use V2G instead of hydrogen?

How much storage & at what cost to keep ?


2006 delaware energy usage

2006 Delaware Energy Usage

Delaware spends ~$1.3billion/yr for electricity

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/hf.jsp?incfile=sep_sum/plain_html/sum_btu_1.html


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

2006 Sankey Diagram for Delaware


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

How much can we get in DE?

Solar

Wind

Ocean


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

How much can we get in DE?

Pelamis Wave Energy Converter


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

From Renewables to Storage

Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage

50 kWh Li-ion battery banks in

Electric Vehicles

Battery-Based Energy Storage


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

From Renewables to Storage

Hydrogen-Based Energy Storage

Pipes


Transmitting h 2

Transmitting H2

In order to Transmit H2 from the southern part of the state to Wilmington ~ 100 miles of polymer lined fiber composite Hydrogen pipeline would be needed

In order to have the ability to transmit a day’s worth of H2 through the pipeline ~ $1.7 million/mile worth of infrastructure costs.

Still Cheaper than a 550 kV power line (by about $0.8 million/mile

Storage & Fuel . Cell sites.

H2 Pipeline

Proposed H2 Generation


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

6 Scenarios for 2019

  • Key Assumptions & Design Parameters

  • Energy demand growth 1%/yr

  • Keep average system capacity constant

  • Non-renewable CF= 90% during down times

  • Renewable CF=30%


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

DE 2019 Sankey Diagram

Scenario 2m


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Cost for each Scenario

$1.3 billion


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Policy Recommendations

Consumer Related Policies

  • Regressive state income tax rebate attached to V2G vehicles

    • Y1=25%; Y3=15%; Y7-12=5%/Y

  • Free parking, tolls, Net Metering components for V2G vehicles

  • Insurance policy subsidization

    • Projects >25kW (insurance requirement)

  • Progression of efficiency standards


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Policy Recommendations

Utility Related Policies

  • Mandatory $0.01/kWh premium on fossil fuel based electricity for Green Fund contribution

  • Free permitting for renewable energy projects (new or upgrades)

  • Facilitation of ocean energy generation technologies:

    • -Mixed energy source utilization requirement for offshore renewable energy projects

  • Encourage development of complimentary efforts

    • Smart Grid, Conservation


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Conclusions

  • DE has tremendous renewable energy potential

  • Hydrogen and/or V2G are viable options to mitigate intermittent electricity generation.

  • 3.Energy storage can allow large (>20%) renewable electricity generation, but at a cost.

  • 4.Technology exists TODAY to do this. We suggest policies to make this happen NOW.


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Questions?


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Determining % of Cars as V2G


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Battery & H2 Storage Characteristics

Energy Density & Power

Efficiency

Hydrogen

40

Ragone Plot

Source: Hall & Bain. Energy Policy. 36 (2008)


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Effect on Overall Efficiency


Current delaware energy usage

Current Delaware Energy Usage

The Bottom Line:

1st Staters spend a total of $1.3 Billion/yr on Electricity

a - kWh; b - kWh; c – c/kWh; d - in dollars; e – weighted total; http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/esr/table5.html


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

So What Will it Cost us?


Solar potential in de

Solar Potential in DE

At 15 %efficiency; 27 square miles of properly1 placed tracking solar panels could produce the entire state’s electricity demand.

1.3 percent of States land area

100% of DE’s Rooftop could provide 22% of state’s electricity needs.2

1.Overview of Renewable Energy Resources in Delaware. Applied Energy Group. October 2002. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2367976/Overview-of-Renewable-Energy-Resources-in-Delaware

2.Kempton, Willet. Delaware’s Wind Potential. Environmental Footprint Workgroup 2008 http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/Admin/Documents/Kempton-EnvFootprintWorkgroup-July08.pdf. February 4, 2009


Wind potential

Wind Potential

Taking shipping lanes, Visual exclusions, and Bird flyways into consideration; Delaware has 54.3 TWh per year of Wind Potential (after taking 0.39 Capacity factor into account).

This is ~ 7 X the proposed 8 TWh that would be needed to reach the amount of wind needed for the 40 % target 2


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Wave Energy Potential

  • 30 kW/m

  • 740 kWh rating

  • 35% capacity factor

  • 150 units

  • Lifetime of 20 years


Offsetting renewable energy intermittency in delaware through h2 and v2g based energy storage

Storage by Hydrogen

  • 240 Gallons

  • 250 psi

  • $5000

  • Lifetime of 15 years

Manufacturer: Roy E. Hanson Jr. Mfg.


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