May 10 – Last lecture Lindsey will hold review session today from 4:00-5:00 McC – 4 th flr – Rm 272. Early theories emphasized similarity between language and music: communication - both have organized sounds that convey meaning
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May 10 – Last lecture
Lindsey will hold review session today from 4:00-5:00
McC – 4th flr – Rm 272
Early theories emphasized similarity between language and music:
communication - both have organized sounds that convey meaning
semantics - both have structural relationships that provide meaning
syntax - both have rules that govern how parts are combined (notes; words)
can play songs/music in our heads as well as think through language
have social and emotional relevance
Hypothesis: similar brain areas
Quickly, data on people with head injuries said “no”
1953- Russian composer had stroke - lost ability to speak or understand speech, but could still understand and write music.
many examples now
Others may lose ability to understand melodies but still be able to understand language
Others may be able to understand music and compose new music in head, but not be able to write it down or communicate it.
Inner hair cells of ear cochlea
Cochlea auditory nerve
Brainstem auditory system thalamus auditory cortex (in temporal lobe)
Neuronal Plasticity in Cortical Neurons
Neurons in auditory cortex respond to specific frequencies.
How many cells are dedicated to processing a specific frequency depends on its importance.
Experience changes the brain’s pitch map by changing the number of cells that respond best to important sounds.
After learning that an 8 KHz tone is important, more brain cells respond (are tuned) to 8 KHz.
Savants – the real challenge for cognitive behavioral neuroscience
At age 14, he played a complicated Tchaikovsky concerto after hearing it once while watching TV.
All from Scientific American 2002.
Savant syndrome – an uncommon condition in which a developmentally disabled person has an astonishing ability alongside overall mental impairment (the movie “Rain Man”
- 1/2000 mentally retarded or brain damaged persons have savant abilities (1/10 in autism)
- most have overall IQs in 40-70 range
- More common in males – 4-6 males/1 female
- usually music, art, math, spatial skill
Prodigious savants – talents are truly remarkable even for highly intelligent person. Only about 50 now known – alive today.
- Savant syndrome can also occur after head injury in adults or in adults with dementia– less understood.
Savant syndrome prompts questions about: