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Maximizing Your Educational Potential. Educational Innovation and Scholarship:. Constance Baldwin, Ph.D., University of Rochester Medical Center Latha Chandran, MD, MPH, MBBS, SUNY/Stonybrook. What we will do today. Definition of scholarship and its assessment

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Maximizing your educational potential l.jpg

Maximizing Your Educational Potential

Educational Innovation and Scholarship:

Constance Baldwin, Ph.D., University of Rochester Medical Center

Latha Chandran, MD, MPH, MBBS, SUNY/Stonybrook


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What we will do today

  • Definition of scholarship and its assessment

  • Use of Educator Portfolios in academic institutions

  • Discussion of

    • Good teaching

    • Scholarly teaching

    • Educational scholarship


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Boyer’s Expanded Definition of Scholarship

  • Discovery:original research to acquire new knowledge, clarify how things work

    • E.g.: How do residents acquire problem solving skills in clinical situations?

    • Does faculty use of a direct observ/feedback checklist improve residents’ H&Ps?

  • Integration:seeking connections between disciplines, bridging creatively across research findings

    • E.g.: Does use of a computerized residency management program result in increased faculty feedback to residents?


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Boyer’s Expanded Definition of Scholarship

  • Application:building bridges between theory and practice, using knowledge for practical purposes

    • E.g.: Does the use of an educator portfolio increase chances of promotion among clinician educators?

  • Teaching:communicating knowledge, making new discoveries accessible and meaningful outside a specialized domain

    • E.g.: Does a curriculum in communication skills enhance patient satisfaction?


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Glassick’s Six Criteria for Excellence in Scholarship

  • Clear goals:stated purpose, realistic objectives, important questions

  • Adequate preparation:understanding of literature, appropriate skills, needed resources

  • Appropriate methods:methods match goals, effective use and flexible application of methods


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Glassick’s Six Criteria for Excellence in Scholarship

  • Significant results:goals are achieved, results are important, field is advanced

  • Effective presentation:presentation well organized, forums appropriate, message clear

  • Reflective critique:work critically evaluated, supported with good evidence, evaluation used to improve future studies


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Why is this important?

  • 315% increase in clinician educators in last twenty years

  • JHU- Clinician Educators were 69% less likely to hold a higher rank than basic scientists

  • Promotions committees unfamiliar with educational scholarship

  • No standardized way to assess scholarship in EPs


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The Educator Portfolio

Key components:

  • Teaching andLearner Assessment

  • Curriculum Development

  • Advising/Mentoring

  • Educational Leadership and Administration

  • Other information: Awards, Journal reviewer

    Key indicators of excellence:

  • Quality

  • Impact

    Developmental and PromotionalEPs


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CV vs EP

  • CV mainly documents educational quantity: ifformat is modified to report educational activities systematically

  • EP shows quantity, quality and impact:creativity, innovation, evidence-based approach, strong learner outcomes, adoption of models by other programs


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What we will do today

  • Definition of scholarship and its assessment

  • Use of Educator Portfolios in academic institutions

  • Discussion of

    • Good teaching

    • Scholarly teaching

    • Educational scholarship


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How is excellent teachingdocumented?

What makes teaching excellent?


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How is Excellent Teaching Defined?

  • Quantity:Variety, volume, effort

  • Content:

    • Authenticity

    • Variety, Richness, and Depth

  • Quality:

    • Use of best practices and sound planning

    • Demonstrated excellence through

      • Direct observation (peers or experts)

      • Teaching evaluations by learners

      • Assessments of learners

    • Longterm outcomes of learners

    • Outcomes of patients


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Sound Educational Methods: Authenticity

  • As adult learners, residents want and need:

    • Real world learning opportunities

    • Learning with immediate applicability

    • Chances to apply theory to practice

    • Skills for life-long learning

  • In world of competency-based education, experiential learning in the practice setting is key to enhancing performance


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Sound Educational Methods: Variety

  • Create a balance of experiences to suit different learning styles and to use a variety of faculty teaching styles

  • Match methods to content:

    • Didactic: complex sets of facts and concepts

    • Interactive: more depth from multiple perspectives

    • Experiential: skills practiced in authentic settings


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Sound Educational Methods: Richness and Depth

As adult learners, students and residents thrive on:

  • Self-directed learning with choices

  • Active learning in practical settings

  • Interactive enrichment

  • Flexible learning experiences that are adaptable to individual learner needs

  • Novelty: new approaches, new types of patients, new settings


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Sound Educational Methods: Good Planning

  • Learning activities and evaluations based on written goals and specific objectives

  • Efficient use of learners’ time with flexible alternatives

  • Good use of faculty teaching strengths

  • Variety of learning settings

  • Faculty orientation and development

  • Integration of new experience with program as a whole


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EP: Documenting Teaching and Learner Assessment

  • Teaching:

    • Scope and impact

    • Creativity and innovation

    • Evidence-based approach

  • Quality of Teaching:

    • Direct observations by peers or experts

    • Evaluations by learners

    • Objectives-based assessments of learners

    • Long-term learner outcomes

    • Patient outcomes


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Small Group Exercise I

  • Use Teaching Activities Gridfrom the EP Template

  • Enter data into Teaching Activities Grid fora variety of activities

  • Review example of an ESP Scholar’s Teaching Activities Grid

  • Report of one key learning point


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What is a scholarly approach to education?

How will a promotions committee know it when they see it?


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What is a scholarly approach to teaching?

  • Application of sound principles and systematic planning

  • Use of “best practices” from literature or recognized experts

  • Self-analysis (reflective practice) to improve teaching or educational development


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Ex. of Scholarly Approach: Learner Assessment

  • Going beyond the conventions of one’s institution

  • Assessing learner needsbefore teaching

  • Evaluating attainment of learning objectives after teaching

  • Using authoritative sources for new methods


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Miller’s Triangle: Quality of Learner Assessments

[Miller, GE. Acad Med, 65(supp); Sept 1990]

Chart audit, portfolio, direct observ, pt outcomes

Does

High fidelity simulations, OSCEs

Shows

how

Case presentations, low fidelity simulations

Knows

how

Multiple choice exams

Knows

Miller’s Triangle


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Ex. of Scholarly Approach: Curriculum Development

  • Structured planning (e.g, use of GNOME model)

  • Evaluation using “best practices”—(e.g., Kirkpatrick model for program evaluation)

  • Examples demonstrating innovation and educational quality


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The GNOME: A Linear Model of Curriculum Development

G = Goals

N = Needs

O = Objectives

M = Methods

E = Evaluation



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Small Group Exercise II

  • Review Curriculum Development section from a sample EP

  • Discuss how toimprove the documentation

  • How would youadvise the scholarto use a more scholarly approach in the future?

  • Report onone key learning point


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What is educational scholarship

How is it done?

How is it demonstrated?


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What is educational scholarship?

  • Scholarship goes beyond good teaching and a “scholarly approach”

  • It iseducational evaluation or research that fulfills the “3 Ps” criteria:

    • Publication

    • Peer review

    • Providing aplatformfor others to build upon


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Comparison of Educational Evaluation and Research

Educational evaluation

  • Looks within a program

  • Studies the effects of educational intervention

  • Purpose: improve program, report to stakeholders

    Educational research

  • Looks beyond a particular program

  • Asks a question with broader relevance

  • Purpose: generalize findings about educational interventions to other programs

    Can be quantitative or qualitative


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Educator Portfolio: Key Content

  • Teaching and Learner Assessment

  • Curriculum Development

  • Mentoring and Advising

  • Educational Leadership and Administration

  • Scholarship in all sections: “Countable” products


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EP: Documentation of Scholarship

  • Scholarly Productivity:

    • Peer rev publications (print or electronic)

    • Peer rev/Invited presentations and workshops

    • Non-peer-rev publications/presentations

    • Books

    • Educational Products

  • Grants:

    • PI or Co-PI

    • Number and $$$

    • Geographic impact (national > local)


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Examples of Scholarship: Curriculum Development

  • Peer reviewed presentations- local, regional, national

  • Peer reviewed publications or product approved by MedEdPORTAL

  • Evidence of impact: e.g., geographic dissemination, positive learner outcomes


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Strategies for Enhancing Your Educational Efforts

  • Expand your educational vision beyond precepting: Boyer’s model

  • Conduct educational activities systematically and critically: Glassick’s Six Criteria

  • Plan ways to demonstrate educational excellence:evaluations, products, models, presentations, publications

  • Participate in the community of educators (meetings, editorial reviews, workshops, presentations, publications)


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Summary of Requirements for Educ Career Advancement

  • Documentation of educational productivity (~quantity)

  • Documentation of educational quality (teaching, scholarly approach)

  • Peer review of products and reports

  • Dissemination and adoption of educational products

  • Evidence of national reputation (via presentations, publications, collaborations)


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How to make educational scholarship a part of your career

  • Always ask questions, and seek answers to the best ones

  • Seek mentors/experts to help guide your scholarly work

  • Build productive collaborations: e.g., look across disciplines at your institution for people in similar roles, or look at other institutions for people in same role; take advantage of ready-made networks in professional organizations

  • Find out what others have done (read the literature, go to meetings, attend workshops, email colleagues with questions)


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How to make educational scholarship a part of your career

  • Develop scholarship around your other responsibilities—multi-purpose your academic effort

  • Plan new teaching activities around current educational program structures to avoid political/scheduling challenges

  • Seek stakeholders to support your effort (look up, down and across)

  • Be the solution, not the problem—find opportunities in challenges faced by your institution


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How to make educational scholarship a part of your career

  • Passit forward: share your knowledge and expertise among your peer educators locally and nationally

  • Build your work—and actively document it—around the 3 hallmarks of scholarship:

    • Public dissemination

    • Peer review

    • Providing a Platform for others to build on


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