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Information Technology in Disease Management. California Health Care Foundation November 18, 2004. Sam Nussbaum Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, Anthem. Drivers of Health Care Costs. Population dynamics: an aging population with chronic diseases

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information technology in disease management

Information Technology in Disease Management

California Health Care FoundationNovember 18, 2004

Sam Nussbaum

Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, Anthem

drivers of health care costs
Drivers of Health Care Costs
  • Population dynamics: an aging population with chronic diseases
  • Medical technology and treatment advances
  • Medical errors; poor quality care
  • Health professional shortages; medical malpractice litigation
  • Consumer education, information, navigating the complex system
  • Unnecessary care; duplication of medical services
  • Administrative costs: hospitals, insurers, medical practices
  • Physician and hospital compensation incentives
health care quality the challenge
Health Care Quality: The Challenge
  • Institute of Medicine Reports: To Err is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm:
    • Medical errors account for 50,000 - 100,000 deaths each year in hospitals; more than from breast cancer, AIDS or motor vehicle accidents.
    • US health care system does not apply evidenced-based medical knowledge; nor is there a system of care for chronic illness
health care quality defect rates occur at alarming rates
Health Care Quality Defect Rates Occur at Alarming Rates

Overall Health Care in U.S. (Rand)

Breast cancer

screening (65-69)

Outpatient ABX for colds

Hospital acquired infections

Hospitalized patients

injured through negligence






Airline baggage handling

Detection &

treatment of


Adverse drug



fatality rate

U.S. Industry














s level (% defects)

Source: modified from C. Buck, GE

vision of the future of health care
Vision of the Future of Health Care

Managing Overall Health Status and Chronic Illness

Managing Components of Illness



  • Population health, disease prevention, integrated care for chronic illness
  • Pro-active primary care, well integrated with specialty services. Hospitals care for increasingly ill population
  • Quality care: improves health and is scientifically based
  • Consumer engaged in health promotion and informed decision-making
  • Episode of Care
  • Hospital at center of delivery system
  • Quality through the eye of the patient and provider viewed as service quality
  • Consumer and employer view access and amount of health care as the gold standard
institute of medicine redesign and improve care
Institute of Medicine: Redesign and Improve Care
  • Care based on continuous healing relationships
  • Customization based on patient needs and values
  • The patient as the source of control
  • Shared knowledge and the free flow of information
  • Evidence-based decision-making
  • Safety as a system property
  • The need for transparency
  • Anticipation of needs
  • Continuous decrease in waste
  • Cooperation amongst clinicians
ensuring quality health care and managing costs in search of the holy grail
Ensuring Quality Health Care and Managing Costs: In Search of the Holy Grail
  • HMOs
  • Contracting in the setting of excess capacity
  • Aggressive medical management
  • Capitation
  • Physician management companies
  • Vertically integrated health care delivery (and financing) systems
  • “Boutique” delivery models
  • Benefit design solutions: most recently health savings accounts, high deductibles; accountability and cost shifting to consumers
  • Tiered networks with cost/quality information
  • Disease management programs




distribution of medical expenses chronic disease and high cost patients

Diagnosis Driven

Cost Driven


Medical Costs


Medical Costs





Chronic diseases include coronary artery disease, asthma/COPD, CHF and diabetes

Distribution of Medical Expenses: Chronic Disease and High Cost Patients
disease management addresses variations

Admissions for CABGper 1,000

Terre Haute, IN

Bangor, ME

Portland, ME

Lebanon, NH

Youngstown, OH

Charlottesville, VA

Disease Management Addresses Variations
disease management definition
Disease Management: Definition
  • A multidisciplinary, systematic approach to health care delivery that:
    • includes all members of a chronic disease population;
    • supports the physician-patient relationship and plan of care;
    • optimizes patient care through prevention, proactive, protocols/ interventions based on professional consensus, demonstrated clinical best practices, or evidence-based interventions; and patient self-management; and
    • continuously evaluates health status and measures outcomes with the goal of improving overall health, thereby enhancing quality of life and lowering the cost of care.
current trends in disease management
Current Trends in Disease Management
  • Health care costs driven by advancing technology applied to an aging population with chronic disease
  • Study designs to demonstrate clinical and cost efficiency
  • Integration of disease management and care (case) management
  • Refinement of predictive models
  • Clinical partnerships with physicians and other health professionals
  • Application of technology: communication (biosensors) and device technology
current trends in disease management1
Current Trends in Disease Management
  • Disease management penetration of Medicare and Medicaid programs
  • Disease management to address racial and ethnic health disparities; e.g., diabetes in Hispanic populations; hypertension in African-Americans
  • Expansion beyond traditional diseases
  • Enhancing consumer engagement, compliance, and persistency
  • The “glue” for evidence-based clinical care
  • Payment for disease and care management; reward clinical performance
the promise of disease management
The Promise of Disease Management
  • Improve not only the quality of health care, but the quality of life
  • Break the links between age – chronic disease – disability – dependence
    • Move back the average age of onset for diseases
    • When chronic disease does hit, manage its disabling impacts
    • Even after disability sets in, provide technology that reduces its effect on daily living
      • Michael Barrett, Forrester Research
chronic care in america physician study
Chronic Care in America: Physician Study

Physician Q605 When you were in training to become a physician, do you believe that you received enough instruction about caring for patients with chronic illness?

chronic care in america sources for information and guidance
Chronic Care in America: Sources for Information and Guidance

When seeking out information to help you with your condition, which of the following sources do you use?

medicare modernization act
Medicare Modernization Act
  • Advancements to help ensure that beneficiaries with chronic illness receive supportive care
  • Traditional fee-for-service: chronic care improvement program for diabetes and CHF, 10 pilots of 20,000 beneficiaries
  • Medicare Advantage: plans must have chronic care improvement programs, as part of their annually-reviewed quality improvement criteria
disease management program evaluation
Disease Management Program Evaluation
  • Aims
    • Raise the bar on DM program outcomes evaluation
    • Develop principles to

guide the DM community

  • DM program

evaluation should

incorporate rigorous

and credible methods

and be workable in the

real world

anthem care counselor a controlled study of disease management
Anthem Care Counselor: A Controlled Study of Disease Management

Study 1:

Study 2:

Control Group 4,134; Intervention Group 7,797

Diseases: Stroke, heart failure, diabetes, coronary disease, obstructive lung disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia

percent improvement on select clinical indicators study 2
Percent Improvement on Select Clinical Indicators - Study #2

“Pre-Intervention” Period “During Intervention” Period 11/01/2003—06/30/2003 07/01/2003—12/31/2003

percent improvement on select clinical indicators study 21
Percent Improvement on Select Clinical Indicators - Study #2

“Pre-Intervention” Period “During Intervention” Period 11/01/2003—06/30/2003 07/01/2003—12/31/2003

financial outcomes percent reductions in er visits and inpatient admits study 2
Financial Outcomes: Percent Reductions in ER Visits and Inpatient Admits (Study 2)

% Change in ER Visits/1000

% Change in Inpatient Admits/1000

financial outcomes percent reductions in pmpm costs study 2
Financial Outcomes: Percent Reductions in PMPM Costs (Study 2)

% Change in Inpatient PMPM

% Change in Total Medical PMPM

health management corporation hmc ppo control group study
Health Management Corporation (HMC) PPO Control Group Study
  • Methodology:
    • ASO groups who purchased DM (Study group of 76k members) and those who did not (Control)
  • Results:
    • Savings of 11% for those enrolled in the program
    • Net Savings of $0.94 PMPM for the entire 76k members
    • ROI of $2.84 : $1.00
predictive models a functional definition
Predictive Models: A Functional Definition
  • Use of analytic and statistical techniques applied to member-specific clinical indicators (such as medical and pharmacy claims data, laboratory values, and other clinical information) to identify members who are most likely to incur high health costs and concomitant deterioration in health.
  • Models used for underwriting and models used to impact medical management may differ. Correlation coefficients (R-squared and Pearson) may be more valuable for underwriting.
  • Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive impact are essential for medical management.
application of predictive models
Application of Predictive Models
  • Identifying/managing complexly ill members (hospitalization avoidance)
  • Refining disease management strategies
  • Managing pharmacy services (integrated with medical management)
  • Underwriting more precisely
  • Reimbursement based on illness burden
  • Assessing physician management strategies
predictive models a framework for success

Patient Reported Information (HRA)

Medical Claims Data

Pharmacy Claims Data

Laboratory Data

Predictive Models: A Framework for Success

Quality Improvement and Financial Impact



  • Target Clinical Situations
  • Regression
  • Rules-based
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Neural Networks
  • Combinations
impactability factor
Impactability Factor
  • The “Impactability Factor” is critical to Medical Management. Level of impact varies based on:
    • Diagnosis: CHF>Leukemia>accidental trauma
    • Psychosocial factors: strength of family and social support
    • Current treatment: evidence-based care vs. opportunity to improve care
    • Contracting issues: high cost pharmaceuticals
    • History of medical site of service; ER>physician office
    • Care process: acute care>rehabilitation>chronic/home care
predictive models conclusions
Predictive Models: Conclusions
  • There is no clearly superior predictive model for managing care.
  • Certain approaches may be more valuable for underwriting.
  • Simple models linked with interventions can advance the quality and efficiency of care.
  • Most important is an integrated medical management strategy to manage members where intervention has the greatest impact: “Impactability Focus.”
  • It is improving the care process that has value
  • Electronic registries
  • Electronic medical record (EMR)
  • Electronic messaging
electronic messaging
Electronic Messaging
  • Diabetes OnTrack Program Line – 24/7 line that responds to a member’s voice and captures daily readings
  • Immunization reminder programs
bio sensors

Moving from passive monitoring to a closed-loop system that responds to monitoring with appropriate treatment

health buddy
Health Buddy

In-home messaging and monitoring

cybernet medical medstar kits
Cybernet Medical MedStar Kits

Biometric monitoring technology – in-home care of chronic diseases including CHF, COPD, and diabetes

  • Partners Telemedicine Wound Care Management
  • Brigham and Women’s Hospital

HealthWear™ Armband and Weight Center for monitoring calorie balance

barriers to it in disease management
Barriers to IT in Disease Management
  • Financing
    • Need to measure impact of DM on cost of care
    • For physician practices, costs of IT investment vs. benefits
  • Interoperability/integration
    • Standards for technology/information
    • Scale to aggregate data
role of health benefits companies
Role of Health Benefits Companies
  • Financial stake in reducing member care costs
  • Resources to make necessary investments in IT
  • Broad databases to facilitate population-based chronic disease management
  • Comprehensive patient information to monitor individual compliance behavior
  • Ability to implement IT standards across extensive operations
the percentage of the health care bill paid by consumers has declined over 25 years





Private Insurance





100% ($ Millions) = $214


*Includes VA, DOD, other public assistanceSource CMS

The Percentage of the Health Care Bill Paid by Consumers has Declined Over 25 Years
costs decline when consumers share expenses




Mental Health33%



Primary Care43%



Specialty Care43%






Costs Decline When Consumers Share Expenses

Changes in medical costs based on changes in consumer co-pay in a loosely managed market*

Total percentchange

Changes attributable topatient co-pay

Changes attributable todecline in utilization

* Utilization comparison based on $0 co-pay plan vs. co-pays of $250 IP, $100 ER, $20 office visit and $20 RX

elements of consumer product framework
Elements of Consumer Product Framework
  • Personal Care Account (PCA)
  • Medical Savings Account (MSA)
  • Complemented by Flexible Spending Account (FSA)
  • Health Savings Accounts (HSA)

Product and Plan Design

Cost-share Funding Mechanisms

  • Typically a high-deductible PPO ($1,500 - $4,000)
  • 100% covered preventive care



Consumer Decision Support Tools

Flexible Provider Network

  • Deep and broad
  • Choice-driven
  • eHealth tools
  • eService tools
  • Provider directories
  • Quality guidance

Technology Platform

  • Web based front end
  • Benefits integration framework
the healthcare advisor overview
The Healthcare Advisor: Overview
  • Focus on high cost conditions and procedures after a patient is diagnosed
  • Over 100 conditions and procedures were included.
  • Online medical encyclopedia available to cover all conditions, procedures, tests and other medical information.
  • Data:
    • All States: Medicare Data
    • 21 States: All Payor (to include Medicare)
  • Features:
    • Nationwide Data Set
    • Facility Selection Capabilities
    • Consumer Reputation Information
    • Evidence-based Information

The Hospital Advisor: Southeast View

the healthcare advisor
The Healthcare Advisor
  • Step 1: Select a Condition
    • More than 20 conditions and more than 94 procedures
    • High cost, high utilization procedures integrated with Leapfrog data.
    • Get Smart or Select a Hospital
    • Other Tools include:
      • Checklist of Questions to Ask a Provider
      • Medical Encyclopedia
      • Resource Center
      • Treatment Decision Support Tool
the healthcare advisor1
The Healthcare Advisor
  • Step 3: Weight Important Factors
    • Consumers rate which factors are important.
    • Modify the relative weights based on what’s most important to them.
    • There are default settings for factors, including both whether or not the factors are selected and their importance weights.
    • The default settings vary by Subimo Procedure and were determined by the Medical Advisory Panel.
the healthcare advisor2
The Healthcare Advisor
  • Step 4: Choose Hospitals to Compare
    • Determine which hospitals most closely match selected preferences.
    • Filter out non-par hospitals or flag network hospitals.
    • A total hospital score is calculated for all of the consumer’s preferences using the worst scores in the database, these summed to create a worst total hospital score.
the healthcare advisor3
The Healthcare Advisor
  • Step 5: Side-by-Side Comparison
    • Basic Information
    • Hospital Clinical Experience and Outcomes
    • Overall Patient Safety Standards
    • Hospital Reputation
    • Hospital Characteristics
    • Additional Information
      • Network Affiliation Indicators
      • Market-Specific Data
      • Hospital Supplied Comments
consumer driven health care
Consumer Driven Health Care

Happy EconomistScenario

Engaged and well-informed consumers . . .

Ugly Reality

Engaged but often ill-informed consumers . . .

  • Allocating coverage dollars wisely
  • Making rational treatment and provider decisions
  • Using reliable and easily understood quality metrics
  • Trading up to better treatments when value is demonstrated
  • Complying with treatments
  • Satisfied with their care
  • Experiencing cost shifting
  • Making decisions without good information
  • Making emotional -- rather than ration -- decisions
  • Spending money unwisely (e.g., total body scans)
  • Trading down more often than trading up
  • Not complying
  • Angry and feeling deprived

Source: Ian Morrison

medical management a changing landscape
Medical Management: A Changing Landscape

Traditional: precertification, referral

authorization, utilization review

Progressive:Disease management, advanced care


  • Manage hospital admissions by preventing deterioration in health status
  • Targeted at high-impact members
  • Evidence-based care models: more consistent approaches to care
  • ROI analyses show promising early results
  • View care navigation positively
  • Viewed as promoting the delivery of quality care and helping them manage challenging patients
  • Models are collaborative
  • Hospital Utilization - manage hospital utilization through appropriateness of admission and length of stay
  • Focus - one size fits all utilization
  • Clinical Management - wide variation in regional clinical practice pattern
  • Financials: ROI minimal
  • Members: view as barriers to care
  • Physicians: consider these approaches administrative hassles that increase office costs and personal intervention
  • “Partnership:” Approaches add cost and create dynamic tension
why is disease management a major player today
Why is Disease Management a Major Player Today?
  • Disease Management programs fill a gap in our healthcare system
    • Provides patients with chronic conditions support for self-care
    • Drives evidence-based medicine
    • Maximizes patient functionality
    • Minimizes long-term complications, acute deterioration in health
    • Improves the efficiency and cost effectiveness of patient care delivery.
the ultimate challenge
The Ultimate Challenge

The ultimate challenge of disease management is behavior change

  • On the part of patients but also on the part of all of us who serve them
  • A real benefit of the new model of health care is that it is patient centered – empowers patients to act in their own best interests
  • We should assess technology in DM on how it advances and supports patients in working with health care professionals to improve their own health
our challenge and our opportunity
Our Challenge and Our Opportunity
  • “The American health care delivery system is in need of fundamental change. The current care systems cannot do the job. Trying harder will not work. Changing systems of care will.”
  • - Institute of Medicine