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1. I am because we are and therefore we are because I am. (Asante Proverb)
2. What Shall We Say? Black Psychology
African American Psychology
3. Psychology of African Americans Black (African) Psychology
System of knowledge concerning the nature of the universe from an African perspective (Baldwin, 1986 as cited in Belgrave and Allison).
Africentric (Afrocentric) Psychology
Focuses on defining African psychology experiences from an African perspective (Grills, 2004 as cited in Belgrave and Allison)
4. Psychology of African Americans African American Psychology
Study Blacks in the United States without using African structure to interpret those experiences
African philosophies are central to studying African Americans and their experiences.
5. The Journey Cecil Sumner, Ph.D
Father of Black Psychology
First African American earn Ph.D (1920)
Kenneth Clark and Mamie Clark (1939, 1940s, 1950s)
Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi)
Modern Era (1968)
6. More Traveled Roads Joseph White (1970, 1972). Toward a Black Psychology
Reginald Jones (1972). Black Psychology
William Cross (1978). “nigrescence’ model
Wade Nobles (1980). writings on African philosophy
Joseph Baldwin (1985) African Self-Consciousness Scale
NA’IM AKBAR (1991) . Effects of oppression
DAUDI AJANI YA AZIBO (1996) system of diagnosing
7. Wood may remain ten years in the water, but it will never become a crocodile.(Zairian proverb) Not White! Black!
8. DIFFERENT And That’s All! Historical Themes in Psychological Research (Parham,White, and Ajamu, 2000)
Inferiority—Blacks are intellectually, physically, and mentally inferior to whites
Deficit-Deficiency—Blacks are deficient respect to intelligence, cognitive styles, family structure
Multi-cultural—all cultural distinct groups have strengths and limitations.
9. Ghetto-centricism Failure of traditional and general psychology to provide a full and accurate picture of Black reality. (Parham, White, and Ajamu, 2000)
Normative standards developed by analyzing working-class, ghetto-dwelling Black people (Akbar, 1981 as cited in Belgrave and Allison, 2006)
Biases generated against Blacks who do not fit the stereotype.
10. One Course of Action Black psychologists are making attempts to establish a normative standard of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors using an Afrocentric framework.
Humphries, Parker, and Jagers (2000)
Woods and Jagers (2004)
11. Methodological Issues Low number of African American Psychologist
Experimental often favored
Interviewing and observations more appropriate
Constructs being measured
Collective rather than individualistic
12. Afro and Euro OppositesCulturally different Worldviews
13. The ruin of a nation begins in the homes of its people. (Ashanti proverb) The foundation of an authentic Black psychology is found in the Black family (White,1972 as cited in Belgrave and Allison)
14. African American Families “The Black family has ended up as the most maligned, unappreciated, and least understood of American institutions” (Lincoln, 1978, p. 489).
15. African American FamilyStructure and Function Enslavement
Harsh conditions of slavery
Mother-child relationship not husband-wife
Permanent union not possible
Increase 2 parent families
Urbanization and single-parent homes
16. African American Familiesbeyond Extended and Nuclear (Billingsley, 1968) Nuclear-Incipient
17. African American Males Stud
Lacked emotional maturity
The most shameful chapters in America as a Christian nation is the systematic exploitation of the Black male as a domestic animal and denying him the status of being a responsible father (Erikson, 1968).
18. African American Women Breeder
Devalued African American men
Strong Black Women (SBW) The multiple roles assumed by Black women has been out of necessity (Lincoln, 1978)
19. African American FamiliesMethodological Issues Historical, cultural, social, economic, political factors, and institutional practices
Lack of longitudinal studies
Oversampling of low income families
20. Knowledge kept to oneself is as useless as candle burning in a pot.(Oromo proverb) Why Study Black Psychology?
21. Bringing It Home To DTCC Diverse population of students from African descent.
Within group differences of African students.
Between group differences between African students and African-American students.
Understanding culturally different world views of self, time, and language may help to promote positive student outcomes.
22. The list could go on and on, but let us stop here. See you next time.
23. List of Sources Belgrave, F. Z. and Allison, K. W. (2006). African American psychology: From Africa to America. London: Sage Publications.
Billingsley, A. (1968). Black Families in White America. Englwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity youth and crisis.NY: W. W. Norton and Company.
Humphries, M. L., Parker, B. L., and Jagers, R. J. (2000). Predictors of moral reasoning among African American children: A preliminary study. Journal of Black Psychology. 26(1), 51-64.
Lincoln, C. E. (1978). Black family, the black church, and the transformation of values. Religion in Life. 47, 486-496. Psychology. 26(1), 51-64.
Parham, T. A., White, J. L, and Ajamu, A. (2000). The psychology of blacks: An African center perspective. (3rd ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall Publishers.
Woods, L. N. and Jagers, R. J. (2003). Are cultural values predictors of moral reasoning in African American adolescents? Journal of Black Psychology. 29(1), 102-118.