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HEALTH CARE. The Healthy Horse. Signs of Disease. T emp. - Pyrexia Anorexia Dehydration Behavior Change Tears Diarrhea, constipation. Signs of Disease. Floppy ears or lips, outstretched nose Dry coat Delay in change of coat Nasal discharge Cough Lameness Shaking or trembling

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HEALTH CARE

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Health care

HEALTH CARE


The healthy horse

The Healthy Horse


Signs of disease

Signs of Disease

  • Temp. - Pyrexia

  • Anorexia

  • Dehydration

  • Behavior Change

  • Tears

  • Diarrhea, constipation


Signs of disease1

Signs of Disease

  • Floppy ears or lips, outstretched nose

  • Dry coat

  • Delay in change of coat

  • Nasal discharge

  • Cough

  • Lameness

  • Shaking or trembling

  • Rolling or thrashing


Equine emergencies

EQUINE EMERGENCIES

  • Acute Fever

  • Lacerations

  • Acute swelling of legs & body

  • Founder

  • Colic

  • Acute Eye


Colic most common symptoms

COLICMOST COMMON SYMPTOMS

  • Lying down more than usual

  • Getting up & lying down repeatedly

  • Standing stretched out

  • Standing frequently as if to urinate

  • Turning the head towards the flank

  • Repeatedly curling lip

  • Pawing at ground

  • Kicking at abdomen

  • Rolling


Colic prevention

COLIC PREVENTION

  • TPR

  • What has his appetite been?

  • Consistency & frequency of defecation?

  • Water intake normal?

  • Gums normal color?

  • Access to any unusual feedstuffs?

  • Change in management?

  • 24-hr ACCESS TO WATER

  • MULTIPLE MEALS

  • REGULAR FEEDING SCHEDULE

  • ADAPT TO NEW DIETS, NEW ROUTINES

  • GOOD QUALITY ROUGHAGE

  • KEEP FEED, CHEMICALS LOCKED UP

  • EXERCISE PROGRAM


Colic prevention1

COLIC PREVENTION

  • CHECK HORSES AT NIGHT

  • CRIBBING STRAP

  • TEETH CARE

  • DO NOT LET HORSES BOLT FEED

  • WORMING PROGRAM

  • DON’T WATER A HOT HORSE


Tetanus lockjaw

TETANUS(Lockjaw)


Tetanus lock jaw

TETANUS(Lock Jaw)

  • Muscle spasms

  • Sound & tactile stimuli

  • Lockjaw

  • Erect ears, flare nostrils

  • Salivation

  • Saw horse stance

  • Sweat

  • Recumbent

  • Death


Equine encephalomyelitis sleeping sickness

EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS(Sleeping Sickness)


Equine encephalomyelitis sleeping sickness1

SYMPTOMS

Pyrexia

Anorexia

Acute depression

Demented-behavior changes

Sleeping posture

Crash through stall

Blindness

Circling

Photophobia

EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS(Sleeping Sickness)


Influenza

Influenza


Influenza symptoms

INFLUENZASYMPTOMS

  • Sudden

  • Cough up to 3 wks.

  • Pyrexia

  • Watery nasal discharge.

  • Depressed

  • Weakness, stiffness

  • Anorexia


Equine viral rhinopheumonitis

EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPHEUMONITIS


Equine viral rhinopheumonitis1

EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPHEUMONITIS


Equine viral rhinopheumonitis2

EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPHEUMONITIS

Respiratory form (EHV-1 & 4)

  • Bilateral nasal discharge

  • Pyrexia

  • Swollen eyelids

  • Dry Cough

  • Anorexia

  • Constipation or diarrhea


Equine viral rhinopheumonitis3

EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPHEUMONITIS

EHV-1

  • PREGNANT MARES

    • Asymptomatic

    • Abortion 4-5 mo later

    • Last trimester (7-11 mo)

  • FULL TERM FOALS

    • General weakness

    • Pneumonia

    • Death

  • Neurological

    • Incoordination

    • Lower leg swelling

    • Inability to pass urine or manure


Clinical signs of west nile virus

Clinical Signs of West Nile Virus

  • Ataxia or stumbling and incoordination

  • Depression or apprehension

  • Weakness of limbs, partial paralysis, or the inability to stand

  • Muscle twitching

  • Death


Strangles distemper

STRANGLES(Distemper)


Strangles distemper1

STRANGLES(Distemper)

  • SYMPTOMS

    • Sudden onset

    • Fever 2-6 d after exposure

    • Swelling & abscess

    • Anorexic

    • Nasal discharge


Rabies

RABIES


Rabies1

RABIES

SYMPTOMS

  • Dysfunction of nerves & brain

    • Behavior changes

    • Salivate

  • Furious form

  • Dumb form

  • Paralytic form


Potomac horse fever

POTOMAC HORSE FEVER

  • Symptoms

    • Acute colitis

    • Depression

    • Diarrhea – perfuse, watery

    • Laminitis

  • Vaccinate


Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis epm

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)


Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis epm1

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)

  • Incubation period: 2 wks to 2 yrs

  • CSF tap


Equine infectious anemia swamp fever

EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA(Swamp Fever)


Equine infectious anemia

EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA

SYMPTOMS

Acute – Die within 3 wks

Chronic – Recurring

  • Intermittent fever

  • Blood colored spots on mucous membranes

  • Depression

  • Wt. loss

  • Edema

  • Anemia

  • Inapparent


  • Disease prevention

    Disease Prevention

    • Vaccinate

      • TETANUS

      • Influenza

      • EEE, WEE

      • VEE?

      • EHV 1 & EHV 4

      • West Niles

      • Potomac Horse Fever?

      • Strangles?

      • EPM?


    Disease prevention1

    Disease Prevention

    • Equine Infectious Anemia

      • Coggins Test


    Some steps to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases

    Some steps to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases:

    • Limit people's access to brood mare and foaling barn(s).

    • Separate breeding horses from others

    • Limit people's access to barns housing horses returning from major shows or events

    • Have a separate area for horses that are continually moving to and from the farm to shows, races and competitions.


    Some steps to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases1

    Some steps to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases:

    • Use new sterile needles and syringes for all medications.

    • Use separate halters and lead shanks for each horse or, at least, limit their use to one group of horses.

    • Keep horses coming to the farm for short periods of time separate from the resident horses


    Parasites

    PARASITES

    • Strongyles (bloodworms)

    • Ascarids (roundworms)

    • Bots

    • Pinworms

    • Strongyloides (threadworms


    Signs of parasitism

    Signs of Parasitism

    • Dull, rough haircoat

    • Lethargy

    • Wt. Loss

    • Coughing &/or nasal discharge

    • Tail rubbing

    • Colic

    • Summer sores


    Ascarids parascaris equorum

    ASCARIDS(Parascaris equorum)


    Ascarid

    ASCARID

    • Small Intestine

    • Signs

      • Respiratory problems

      • Pot belly


    Pinworm oxyuris equi

    PINWORM (Oxyuris equi)

    • Large intestine

      • Adults: gut contents

      • Larvae: mucosa

    • Hair loss on base of tail


    Large strongyle

    LARGE STRONGYLE

    • Adults: cecum & large colon

      • Suck blood

      • Ulcers

    • Larvae: abdominal tissues & organs

      • Severe tissue damage


    Health care 1195135

    LARGE STRONGYLE


    Small strongyle

    Large intestine – cecum & colon

    Irritate intestinal wall causing thickening & nodules

    Dark or black manure, soft feces with foul odor

    SMALL STRONGYLE


    Bots gastrophilus intestinalis g nasalis g hemorrhoidalsis

    BOTS(Gastrophilus intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. hemorrhoidalsis)


    Health care 1195135

    BOTS

    • Stomach, gums

    • Inflammation, perforation of stomach wall, gum irritation


    Stomach worm habronema muscae h microstoma drashia megastoma

    STOMACH WORM(Habronema muscae, H. microstoma, Drashia megastoma)

    • Stomach, injured skin

    • Signs

      • Gastritis

      • Summer sores

    • Damage

      • Tumors of wall

      • Ulcers in skin


    Tapeworm anoplocephala magna

    TAPEWORM(Anoplocephala magna)

    • Small intestine, cecum

    • Ulceration of ileocecal valve, intestine inflammation


    Threadworm strongyloides westeri

    Small intestine

    Mare’s milk

    Erosion of intestinal mucosa, inflammation of intestines

    Worms disappear by 6 months of age

    THREADWORM(Strongyloides westeri)


    Management for control of internal parasites

    MANAGEMENT FOR CONTROL OF INTERNAL PARASITES

    • Proper manure disposal

    • Pastures

    • Feed

    • Water


    Management for control of internal parasites1

    MANAGEMENT FOR CONTROL OF INTERNAL PARASITES

    • Drug control

    • Rotational Dewormers

      • Optimum – Every 6-8 wks

      • 4X/year – Strongyles, ascarids, pinworms

      • 2X/year – Above + bots

    • Daily wormer


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