Farmer seed production
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Farmer Seed Production. James M. Roshetko ICRAF & Winrock International. Sub-Project Strengthening Germplasm Security for NGOs and Smallholder Farmers in Indonesia. Sub-project objectives, to:

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Farmer seed production

Farmer Seed Production

James M. Roshetko

ICRAF & Winrock International


Farmer seed production

Sub-Project Strengthening Germplasm Security for NGOs and Smallholder Farmers in Indonesia

Sub-project objectives, to:

i) strengthen the technical awareness and skills of NGOs and smallholders regarding tree germplasm; and

ii) increase the availability and use of quality germplasm by NGOs and smallholders

Objectives target the expressed needs of NGOs and farmers

Also experience in the Philippines


Farmer seed production

International research organizations

Quality

International seed companies

National research organizations

Large private plantations

National NGOs

National extension organizations

Small private nurseries

Quantity

Farmers and Farmer Groups

Farmers and NGOs have weak linkages to tree seed resources

They need to develop their own seed security – seed production one part


Farmer seed production

Local (farmer & NGO) pathways

Farmers/NGOs acquire seed from informal sources

* Collect from local forests, woodlots, or farms

* Exchange with family or friends

This local pathways operate in recurrent isolation –

* Seed collected repeatedly from the same sources

* ‘New seed’ only occasional enters the local population

Farmers/NGOs do not follow suitable seed collection protocol

* Collect seed from 1-5 trees

* Collect from trees that are easy to access

* Quality of mother tree rarely considered* Distance between trees not considered

* Origins of trees not considered (unknown or small population)

Locally collected seed is often of suspect quality


Seed quality and quantity

Why Farmer Seed Production ?

Seed quality and quantity !!!

  • Problem for all partners

  • Seed shortages are common

  • Use whatever seed is available

  • No direct access to quality seed


Seed sources indonesia

Seed Sources (Indonesia)

  • 75% of seed from local stands

  • Local stands questionable quality

  • No seed collection criteria !!

  • NGOs, farmers and dealers have limited knowledge

  • 25% of seed donated by INGOs, government, universities, etc

  • Donated seed – often from local sources – quality questionable

  • 63% of partners collect seed!! –

  • This is a valuable opportunity!!

  • Conclusion

  • Local seed management capacity must be improved

  • Tree seed collection & management training / information

  • Inflow of quality seed to establish on-farm stands / seed sources

  • Assist NGOs/farmers develop seed enterprise (linked to gov & private sec)


Farmer seed production

Training and information needs:

  • Only 5% of partners have received seed related training

  • Yet 63% of partners collect seed

  • And 30% of partners sell seed

  • All requested training

  • Appropriate documents should be ‘how to’ guidelines and manuals.


Participatory training documents

Participatory Training & Documents:

  • Step 1: Training curriculum written by ICRAF/Winrock

  • Step 2: Technical accuracy reviewed by IFSP and seed technology centers

  • Step 3: Implement a series of four ‘participatory’ training courses with NGOs and farmer groups

  • Step 4: Input from participants: i) is course effective, ii) is technical information practical to local conditions

  • Step 5: Develop curriculum into a field manual and test with farmers not previously involved with training

  • Step 6: Develop mini-training for farmers to be implemented by NGOs and farmer groups – advantage is mini-trainings are inexpensive and can reach a large number of farmers – scaling-up activity & enhanceimpact


Comments from training participants

Comments from training participants

“Previous to the training courses I was not aware of the importance of mother tree selection nor the need to collect seed from many trees.”

Petrus Tilis, Seed collector/dealer (Kupang)

“ We collect most of the seed for our planting programs, because we can not afford to purchase all the seed required. Before the training we did not practice proper cleaning, sorting and storage.”

Sophia, Yayasan Tananua (Flores)


Farmer seed production

General Farmer/NGO Seed Collection Guidelines

  • Appropriate for natural forests, plantations and smallholder seed sources

  • Collect seed from the best stands (hopefully fairly uniform).

  • Collect from the best trees, compared to neighbors:above average height & diameter; insect & disease free; mature and ample quantity of seed; good characteristics for timber, fruit, or fodder etc.

  • Not from isolated trees (separated by more than 100 meters).

  • Minimum 30 trees. If less quality mother trees are available, neighbors should combine, mix and redistribute their seed.

  • Recommended distance 50 meters between mother trees (not necessary in hedgerow orchards).

  • Only collect mature seed.

  • Collect seed from multiple location on the crown – pollinated from different trees.

Appropriate role for NGO or Community Group

1. Facilitate activities between farmers, and 2. Coordinate with technical agencies and private seed companies


Farmer seed production

Seed Orchards

  • Research / Industrial Seed Orchards –

  • Sole purpose to produce seed

  • In general monocultures

  • Management excludes production of other products

  • Objective: produce seed of the best possible quality

  • Smallholder Seed Orchards (Stands) –

  • Integrated into existing multi-species, multi-product, risk adverse farming system

  • Management flexible to address farmers land, labor, capital and time limits

  • Seed is one of many products from trees (fuel, timber, fodder, fruit, etc) and whole system (agriculture products)

  • Objective: produce seed of above-average quality compared to other locally available seed – secure local access to quality tree seed

  • Linkages with technical agencies and private seed companies


Farmer seed production

Models - Farmer Seed Orchards

  • 3 Models

  • Plantations

  • Hedgerows

  • Mixed Tree Gardens

  • Plantations

  • One or a few species, often timber species

  • Design: blocks, strips or border plantings

  • Segregated component of farming system(intercrop during establishment or in understory)

  • Products: seed (major), timber, fuel, others


Farmer seed production

Models - Farmer Seed Orchards (2)

  • Hedgerows

  • One or a few species, often legumes

  • Design: contour rows, other strips

  • Integrated with annual or tree crops

  • Products: seed (major), fodder, fuel

  • green manure, stakes, food & tree

  • products

  • Services: soil & water conservation & enrichment


Farmer seed production

Models - Farmer Seed Orchards (3)

  • Mixed Tree Gardens

  • Multiple species, not all intended for seed production

  • Design: traditional garden design, with standardized spacing deliberate management and fewer species

  • Integrated fully with other tree crops and possible annuals

  • Products: seed is one many tree or annual crop products


Farmer seed production

Status

  • Under development at multiple sites in Indonesia

  • Collaboration with farmers, NGOs, & technical agencies

  • Farmer/NGO feedback crucial to evaluate models &

  • develop innovation

Extrapolation Domain

Farmer Seed Orchards are appropriate for areas with

limited tree resources, strong demand for tree products

(including tree seed) and farmers who are interested in tree

planting.


Farmer seed production

Concluding Remarks

Farmer Seed Orchards as discussed here is not meant to replace

Seed Orchards, Seed Production Areas, or Seed Stands.

Management of Farmer Seed Production is intended to improve the

quality of the seed used locally compared to existing conditions.

  • Key activities are

  • Improving seed collection and management skills

  • Enhancing access to technical information

  • Promoting the use of technically sounds collection guidelines

  • Establishing local seed sources and tree plantings with quality seed

  • Strengthen linkages between farmers/NGOs and formal seed sector (government, forest industry, seed suppliers)

These measures will make it possible for NGOs and farmers to improve the

seed quality of the seed used at the local level!!!


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