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DNA It’s not just for college anymore! Web Sites DNA structure and replication animation Overview of gene expression DNA Models & Translation model http://207.207.4.198/pub/flash/24/menu.swf http://www.genomicseducation.ca/animations/gene_expression.asp

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Dna it s not just for college anymore l.jpg

DNAIt’s not just for college anymore!


Web sites l.jpg

Web Sites

  • DNA structure and replication animation

  • Overview of gene expression

  • DNA Models & Translation model

http://207.207.4.198/pub/flash/24/menu.swf

http://www.genomicseducation.ca/animations/gene_expression.asp

http://www.indigo.com/models/dna-models.html


Learning goals for dna genetics l.jpg

Learning Goals for DNA & Genetics

  • Know structure/function of DNA

  • Know DNA is genetic material

  • Illustrate how DNA specifies traits

  • Understand mutations are change in DNA sequence

  • Understand relationship between mutations in DNA and expressed phenotype


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What Is DNA

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • Everyone knows this?

  • Molecule of heredity

    • Constitutes our genes

    • Genes are stretches of DNA sequence

    • DNA is present in each cell

    • Passed on to gametes and into progeny


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What is DNA, Really

  • Polymer of nucleotides

  • Polymer? Nucleotides?

  • Polymer

    • A large molecule that is a series of joined smaller molecules

  • Nucleotides

    • The small molecules that make up the large DNA polymer


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DNA Concepts

  • Genes

  • Chromosomes

  • Complementary base-paired double helix

  • Polymer of nucleotides

  • The sequence of nucleotides is the information of DNA


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DNA Concepts

  • DNA controls traits of organism

  • Traits pass from parent to offspring

  • DNA is copied during cell division

  • DNA is present in sex cells

  • DNA is passed from parent to offspring


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Why are DNA Concepts Difficult?

  • Chemical names?

    • Deoxyadenosine, purine, pyrimidine

  • Chemical processes?

    • base pairing, hydrogen bonds

  • Genetic principles?

    • DNA replication

    • Mutations

    • Chromosome segregation & assortment


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Why is DNA So Difficult?

  • Chemical Names

    • Deoxyadenosine monophosphate

    • Pyrimidine

  • Persons Names

    • Martina Navratilova

    • Hakeem Olajuwon


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How About Pictures + Names

C

B

A

E

__ Hakeem Olajuwon

__ Purine

__ Kareem Abdul-Jabbar

__ Deoxyadenosine monophosphate

__ Pyrimidine

__ Martina Navratilova

__ Deoxycytidine monophosphate

__ Nadia Comaneci

F

C

H

E

B

D

G

D

A

F

G

H


Nucleotides the building blocks of dna l.jpg

NucleotidesThe building blocks of DNA


Nucleotide structure l.jpg

Base always attached here

Phosphates are attached there

Nucleotide Structure


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Nucleotides

Adenosine monophosphate

Cytidine monophosphate

Guanosine monophosphate

Uridine monophosphate

Deoxyadenosine monophosphate

Deoxycytidine monophosphate

Deoxyguanosine monophosphate

Deoxythymidine monophosphate


Nucleotide polymerization reaction phosphodiester bond formation l.jpg

Nucleotide Polymerization Reaction: Phosphodiester Bond Formation


Order of nucleotides l.jpg

AGTCCGATCGTAACTGGGTCACATCGTAAGTGTACACGTA

||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

TCAGGCTAGCATTGACCCAGTGTAGCATTCACATGTGCAT

Order of Nucleotides

  • As nucleotides join the strand they generate a sequence

  • Inherent fidelity of DNA replication

TAAGTGTACACGTA

ATTCACATGTGCAT

TAAGTGTACACGTA

TCACATCG

TAAGTGTACACGTA

TCACATCG

TCACATCG

TCACATCG

TAAGTGTACACGTA

AGTCCGATCGTAACTGGG

||||||||||||||||||||||

||||||||||||||||||

AGTGTAGC

ATTCACATGTGCAT

TCAGGCTAGCATTGACCC

AGTGTAGC

AGTGTAGC

ATTCACATGTGCAT

TAAGTGTACACGTA

ATTCACATGTGCAT


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DNA Sequence

  • Human Genome Project

    • sequencing the human genome

  • What does “sequencing” mean?

    • To determine the order of the nucleotides in the human DNA molecules

    • Human DNA molecules are our chromosomes

    • Each chromosome is a DNA double helix

    • Each DNA double helix is two single DNA molecules intertwined

    • Each single DNA molecule is a chain of nucleotide units

    • Sequencing is the method to determine what the exact order of units is in this chain


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DNA

Gene

Transcription

RNA (messenger RNA)

Translation

Protein

(sequence of

amino acids)

Functioning of proteins within living

cells influences an organism’s traits.

Gene Expression


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A Gene is a Transcription Unit

Promoter & Regulatory

sequences

Terminator

Coding sequences

DNA

Transcription

mRNA 5¢

Open reading frame

Start

codon

Stop

codon

Ribosome binding site


Transcription l.jpg

Transcription

Coding


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A C

Overview of gene expression


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Translation


Translation elongation l.jpg

TranslationElongation

aa-tRNA entry

Peptidyl transferase

Termination

Translocation


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Translation


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a

b

b

c

The code is 3 letter words, but what about punctuation?

GROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEDOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

  • Code written in three letter words - codons

  • Ribosomes must start at the right place to read the message

  • There are three frames, but only one is read to give an intelligible message

  • Need a start codon (NOW) and a stop codon (END) to define the frame to use

  • frame b

    • NOW THE CAT SAW THE DOG BUT DID NOT RUN


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ROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEDOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

b

c

^

ROWNDNOWTHECATSAWTHEDOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

b

c

Reading Frames & Mutation Types

  • Frame shift mutations

    • Original reading frame is frame a

    • Insertions or deletions shift the reading frame


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ROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEADOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

b

c

Reading Frames & Mutations

ROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEDOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

b

c

  • Once a ribosome begins translation in a particular frame (a) it does not shift frames

  • Therefore, if a mutation shifts the reading frame in the mRNA, the ribosome will read the wrong frame.

^

NOW THE CAT SAW THE ADO GBU TDI DNO TRU NEN DSE W..


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ROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEDOGBUTENDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

Reading Frames & Mutations

ROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEDOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

  • A change that creates a stop codon is a non-sense mutation

  • Generates a truncated protein

^

^

NOW THE CAT SAW THE DOG BUT END


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^

ROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEHOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

Reading Frames & Mutations

ROWANDNOWTHECATSAWTHEDOGBUTDIDNOTRUNENDSEW

a

  • A change that creates a different codon is a mis-sense mutation

  • Generates a protein with an altered sequence

NOW THE CAT SAW THE HOG BUT DID NOT RUN END


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Molecular Basis of Phenotype


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Effect of Mutations

  • Sickle cell disease

    • single nucleotide change AT


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