Dependency Theory. Towards a Critique of Developmentalist: Dependency Theory. 1960s-- United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America. Main Authors: Fernando H. Cardoso, Faletto, Theotonio Dos Santos.
Developmentalist approaches are wrong. The expansion of the market does not necessarily produce either modernization or development.On the contrary, capitalism makes societies look like “feudal” in the periphery.
Development market does not necessarily produce either modernization or development. and underdevelopment constitute the two sides of the same coin: capitalism.The periphery is underdeveloped because of the development of the center.
Flows of Wealth market does not necessarily produce either modernization or development.
The play between Center and Periphery reproduces in all scales (fractal structure)CenterPeripheryCenter-Periphery Center-Periphery Center-Periphery-Center-PeripheryCenter-PeripheryCenter-Periphery
Unequal and Combined Development:
Sovereign States scales (fractal structure)
Center (Ex: England, the U.S.)
The State and the Nation split apart
WORLD MARKET scales (fractal structure)
SOCIAL EXCLUSION (POVERTY)
Against Rostow, Huntington, Moore, and... Marx, Cardoso and Faletto argue that...
Modernization, Industrialization, Urbanization, to Development do not lead in the periphery. Instead, they foster Underdevelopment, a “caricature” of the central societies.
For theorists of dependency, such as Cardoso and Faletto... Faletto argue that...
(economic and social integration fosters) Faletto argue that...
Democracies, extended citizenship, and the rule of law, which PREVAIL in the Center
Free market + Democracy
(economic and social exclusion fosters)
Dictatorships (or Formal Democracies), State violence, limited citizenship, and the (un)rule of law, which PREVAIL in the Periphery.
the State + Corporations
Free market + RepressionPolitically...
SOLUTION: Faletto argue that... BREAK UP THE BONDS OF DEPENDENCY
Importance of politics.
C & F: “the political struggle revolving around the state shows what is essential in this form of dependency: the style of development of the possibility of alternatives depends upon the resolution of this question of the state.”
Single division of labor within a system which “has no overarching political structure.”
World-market, multiplicity of nation-states. Capitalism. No limits to profit. Starvation may be necessary for profit. Appearance of “the poor.”