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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION. 1. SEMANTICS Definition of words Choice of words. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION. 2. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS When to use certain channel Oral alone: Simple reprimand Settle simple dispute Written alone: Don’t need immediate feedback Need record.

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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

1. SEMANTICS

  • Definition of words

  • Choice of words


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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

2. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS

  • When to use certain channel

  • Oral alone:

    • Simple reprimand

    • Settle simple dispute

  • Written alone:

    • Don’t need immediate feedback

    • Need record


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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

2. USE OF CHANNELS

  • Both channels:

    • Commendation

    • Serious reprimand

    • Important policy change

  • Nonverbal

    • Be aware of it.


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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

3. PHYSICAL DISTRACTIONS

4. NOISE, PHYSICAL,

PSYCHOLOGICAL

5. STATUS DIFFERENCE

6. EFFECTS OF EMOTIONS


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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

7. PERCEPTIONS

  • Stereotypes

  • Halo effects

  • Selective perception

    • See and hear what we expect

    • Ignore if conflicts with “what we know.”

  • Projection


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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

8. FILTERING, SCREENING

NEGATIVE INFORMTAION

9. EVALUATING THE SOURCE

10.ABSENCE OF FEEDBACK, POOR FEEDBACK


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COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

11. INFORMATION, DATA

OVERLOAD

12. POOR LISTENING

  • LISTEN TO RESPOND

  • LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND


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TO OVERCOME BARRIERS:

  • Learn to use feedback well.

  • Be sensitive to receiver’s point of view.

  • Listen to UNDERSTAND!

  • Use direct, simple language, or at least use language appropriate to the receiver.

  • Use proper channel(s). Learn to use channels well.

  • Learn to use supportive communication, not defensive communication.


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LISTENING WITH...

  • “EXPERIENCE”

  • “WHAT WE KNOW”

  • BIASES

  • STEREOTYPES

  • PERCEPTIONS

  • EMOTIONS


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LISTENING

  • LISTEN TO RESPOND

  • LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

1. RESTATE/REPEAT

2. PARAPHRASE

3. REFLECT FEELING

4. PARAPHRASE CONTENT AND

REFLECT FEELING

5. SAY NOTHING


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

Before I can walk in another person’s shoes,

I must remove my own.

Unknown


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

ASSUMES WIN-WIN

1. ASK PERMISSION

2. ESTIMTE TIME LIMIT

3. STATE BOUNDARIES

STATE WHAT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE

4. USE RESPECT, GENTLENESS

5. USE COURAGE


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

ASSUMES WIN-WIN

HIGH

X

RESPECT

LOW

LOW

HIGH

COURAGE


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

ASSUMES WIN-WIN

  • BE DIRECT

  • BE CLEAR

  • BE SPECIFIC

  • BE HONEST

  • BE RESPECTFUL

  • BE TACTFUL

  • TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR YOURSELF


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

  • WHEN YOU …………………..

    (State observed action.)

  • I FEEL …………………………

    (State feeling.)

  • BECAUSE I THINK …………..

    (Thought that causes the feeling.)

  • AND I WOULD LIKE ………..

    (Request for positive action.)


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

  • When you meet me an hour after you said you would

  • I feel angry and hurt

  • Because I think you don’t care much about my job demands

  • And I would like you to call when you are going to be late.


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LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

  • YOU’RE AN HOUR LATE!

  • YOU MAKE ME ANGRY!

  • YOU’RE ALWAYS LATE!

  • YOU DON’T CARE ABOUT MY

    TIME/FEELINGS!

  • YOU MAKE ME SICK!


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NOT LISTENING?

  • AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL RESPONSES:

    • PROBE

    • GIVE ADVICE

    • EVALUATE

    • INTERPRET


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UNDERSTANDING?

  • I KNOW WHAT YOU MEAN

  • KNOW WHAT I MEAN?

  • I HEAR YOU

  • I’VE BEEN THERE!

  • YOU UNDERSTAND ME?

  • YOU HEAR WHAT I SAID?

  • YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO?

  • I KNOW WHAT YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT.


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“FIXING” = LISTENING?

  • “DON’T FEEL BAD.”

  • “DON’T CRY.”

  • “DON’T BE UPSET.”

  • “YOU SAY THAT BUT YOU ALWAYS DO WELL.”


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Ten Rules for Good Listening

Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule

1. Stop talking You cannot listen if you are talking.

2. Put the person at ease Help a person feel free to talk; create a permissive environment.

3. Show the person you Look and act interested; listen to

want to listen understand, not to oppose.

4.Remove distractions Don’t doodle, tap, or shuffle papers; shut the door if necessary to achieve quiet.


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Ten Rules for Good Listening

Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule

5. Empathize Try to see the other person’s point of view.

6. Be patient Allow plenty of time; do not interrupt; don’t start for the

door or walk away.

7. Hold your temper An angry person takes the wrong meaning from words.


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Ten Rules for Good Listening

Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule

8.Go easy on argument Don’t put people on the defensive

and criticism and cause them to “clam up” or become angry; do not argue- even if you win, you lose.

9. Ask questions This encourages a person and shows that you are listening; it helps to develop points further.

10. Stop talking This is first and last, because all other guides depend on it; you cannot listen effectively while you are talking.

Source: Adapted from Human Behavior at Work, Fifth Edition, by Keith Davis. 1977.


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KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION

1.Channels Congruent. Incongruent. “Oh, do I

Verbal and non-verbal seem upset? No, everything

channels must agree. is fine” - while obviously upset.

2.Descriptive. “This is what Evaluative. “You are happened and this is how I wrong for doing what you felt about it. I’d like to suggest did.”

an alternative that would be

more acceptable.

3.Problem oriented. “How Person oriented. “Why

can we solve this problem?” are you so slow?”


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KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION

4.Specific. “I felt like I did not Global. “You are always

get equal time to cover my seeking all the recognition

material in that presentation.” for our work.”

5.Owned. “I have decided Not owned. “You have a

to turn down your request pretty good idea, but you

because…” know how it is in this

organization -- everyone

can’t get everything they

want.”

6.Validating. “That is an Not validating. “I can’t

interesting suggestion.” believe you could think such

a thing.”


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KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION

7.Equality oriented. “I have Superiority oriented.

some ideas, but do you have “Your suggestion is dumb.

any suggestions?” This is the way to handle this problem.”

8.Flexible. “I have some Closed-minded. “What-

questions, but let’s explore ever made you think that

it further.” would work?”

9.Appropriately intimate. Overbearing or aloof.

“Since we have known each “I know we just met, but I

other a long time, I’d like really need to tell you

to tell you how I feel about something personal.”

our relationship.”


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ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION

  • STRUCTURE SHOULD FACILITATE, NOT HINDER

  • MANAGE INFORMATION FLOW

  • CLIMATE INFLUENCES

  • INTERGROUP INTERACTIONS, BARRIERS?

  • USE GRAPEVINE


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COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

. . .

. . . .

.

. .

Y WHEEL, STAR

CENTRALIZED


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COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

. .

. . . .

. . . .

CIRCLE ALL CHANNEL

DECENTRALIZED


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COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

SIMPLE

TASKS

Y

WHEEL

STAR

CIRCLE

ALL CHANNEL

Y

WHEEL

STAR

COMPLEX

TASKS

CIRCLE

ALL CHANNEL

FASTER

MORE ACCURATE

SLOW

LESS ACCURATE


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