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CIS105 Networking: Computer Connections Topics Describe the basic components of a network. Explain the methods of data transmission, including types of signals. List communication equipment and channels options. Describe various network topologies.

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CIS105 Networking: Computer Connections

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Cis105 networking computer connections l.jpg

CIS105

Networking: Computer Connections


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Topics

  • Describe the basic components of a network.

  • Explain the methods of data transmission, including types of signals.

  • List communication equipment and channels options.

  • Describe various network topologies.

  • Define firewall and communication protocols.


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Network

  • A Computer Network istwo or more computers connected together with data communications equipment over a communications channel/media.

  • Benefits of Networks?

    • Reduce costs by sharing hardware, software, and data (information).

    • Communication!


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Simple Network Model

Signal path

Converts data

Converts data

Initiates instruction

Receives

Instruction


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Communication Equipment/Devices

  • Modem – modulator -demodulator

    • Converts digital signal to analog and vice versa

  • Telephone Dialup Modem (56 Kbps)

  • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) Modem

  • Cable Modem (cable companies)

  • Cellular Modem (uses cellular system)

  • Network Integrated w/ Motherboard

  • Network Interface Card (NIC)

    • Installed in expansion slot

    • Wired or wireless cards


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Communication Channel / Media

Physical Media

  • Twisted Pair (TP) Cable

    • Shielded (STP)

    • Unshielded (UTP)

    • Ethernet uses RJ45

    • Telephone uses RJ11

    • RJ – Registered Jack

  • Coaxial Cable (coax)

    • Copper + 3 layers of insulation

  • Fiber Optic Cable

    • Glass/plastic – uses light to transmit

    • Speed of light

    • Tubes are insulated

  • Wireless (next slide)


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Communication Channel / Media

Wireless Media

  • Wireless

    • Generally slower

    • Susceptible to interference

    • Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity –standard 802.11 MIMO (Multiple-in, Multiple-Out)

    • Infrared

    • Bluetooth (see page 205)

    • Cellular Radio

  • Microwave (line of site)

  • Satellite – placed about22,300 miles above


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Transmission Characteristics

  • Bandwidth – is the measurement of how much information can be transmitted over a medium over a prescribed period of time.

  • Signal Type

    • Analog (continuous signal for older media).

    • Digital (individual electrical pulses - binary).

  • Broadband transmission– multiple signals simultaneously in both directions - shared line - (Internet connections).

  • Baseband transmission – one signal at a time.

    • Simplex – data is transmitted one direction only (TV).

    • Half-duplex – data is transmitted in both directions, but not at the same time (CB Radio, ATM, FAX).

    • Full-duplex – data is transmitted in both directions at the same time for same device (telephone, modem dial-up service).


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Transmission Modes

  • Asynchronous – start/stop signals for each message.

    • Message is usually one or two bytes long.

    • Low-speed communication

  • Synchronous – larger block of characters are transmitted together.

    • Includes error-check bits at the end of the message.

    • More complex and more expensive.


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Local Area Network (LAN)

  • A LAN is a collection of computers connected together to share hardware, software, and data.

  • LAN Hardware

    • Communications equipment / devices

    • Communications channel / media

    • Hub – connects computers to create a LAN

    • Bridges and Routers – connects LANS that use the same protocol

    • Gateways – connects LANS that use different protocols, and also serve as routers.


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Communications Closet


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Star Network

Ring Network

  • Node - each computer, printer, or server on network

  • Network Topology is the physical layout of a network.

  • Three common topologies

    • Star

    • Ring

    • Bus

    • See next slide

Bus Network


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Star – Ring - Bus

  • Star

    • Server is in center with attached clients

    • If server goes down, network goes down

    • Easy to expand

    • Server controls collisions

  • Ring

    • All computers connected by a single line

    • If any computer goes down, the network goes down

    • Difficult to expand

    • No collisions, because token travels around one way

  • Bus

    • All nodes share a single line

    • If a computer goes down, the network is still up

    • Easy to expand

    • Many collisions – causes resend – Terminator’s located at ends.


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Wide Area Network (WAN)

  • Connecting two or more LAN’s of the same company.

  • Can link computers across town or span the world.

  • Common carriers are companies licensed by FCC to provide these services as leased lines.

  • Dedicated lines provides permanent connection between two or more locations

    • Companies can build their own (microwave, fiber, etc.)

    • T1 and T3 high-capacity digital lines can be leased

    • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) use telephone lines

  • Connect with Router or Gateway

  • Will need a firewall to keep intruders out, which can be hardware and/or software (see after next slide).


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GateWay

Internet

WAN Model


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Firewalls block unauthorized users from entering the network and unauthorized software from making outbound connections (spyware).

Windows includes personal Firewall protection.

Separate products can also be purchased.

Firewall


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Communication Software

  • All of this networking hardware requires software.

  • After connecting all of the hardware, software needs to be installed on the administrator’s computer.

  • Connect to the networking devices from the administrator’s computer and use the software to configure the hardware.

  • Then everything will work .


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Client/Server Uses

  • Client computer requests services from server.

  • Server returns requested information / data.

  • Common uses include Web Server, Print Server, File Server, and Email Server.


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Peer-to-Peer Networks

  • Connect directly to another computer to create a LAN.

  • Need to activate Operating System features.

  • Server is not required.

  • All computers have equal status.

  • Users share each other’s files, printers, etc.

  • Common in small offices.


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Communication Protocol

  • How is all of this communication possible?

  • Protocol - a set of rules for the exchange of data.

    • Agreement on how data is to be sent and receipt acknowledged.

    • Needed to allow computers from different vendors to communicate.

    • Common protocols include Ethernet, Wi-Fi, TCP/IP

    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

      • Permits any computer to communicate over the Internet.

      • Uses packet switching – original message is broken up; each piece has address of destination; each piece may take a different route; receiving computer puts all the pieces together.


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Summary

  • Want to learn more…

    • CIS190 Introduction to LAN

    • CNT140 Cisco Networking Basics

    • MST150 Microsoft Windows Professional

  • HowStuffWorks-Firewalls

  • Review MCC’s Wireless Network: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/its/net_services.html


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