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Chapter 4. Role and Style of the OD Practitioner. Learning Objectives. Define role of OD practitioner. Identify your strengths and areas of improvement as potential practitioner. Experience and practice your style of intervention and influence in a group.

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Chapter 4 l.jpg

Chapter 4

Role and Style

of the OD Practitioner

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Learning Objectives

  • Define role of OD practitioner.

  • Identify your strengths and areas of improvement as potential practitioner.

  • Experience and practice your style of intervention and influence in a group.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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You Need a Machete at Sears(part 1 of 2)

Sears bought Lands’ End to upgrade its apparel image.

Can Sears avoid hurting the image of Lands’ End?

Sears is giving apparel operations to Lands’ End management.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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You Need a Machete at Sears(part 2 of 2)

Culture clashes between Lands’ End and Sears.

“You need a machete” to get through it all, says former VP.

Another says, “… to be successful …, you need to work through a culture, not against it.”

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Haphazard VersusPlanned Change

Change programs do not happen accidentally.

Initiated with purpose and require leadership.

OD practitioner deals proactively with changing forces.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Two Types of Changein an Organization

  • Random or haphazard change.

    Forced on organization by external environment.

    Not prepared for.

  • Deliberate attempts to modify organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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External Practitioner (part 1 of 2)

Not previously associated with client system.

Advantages:

  • Different viewpoint and objectivity.

  • Not dependent upon the organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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External Practitioner (part 2 of 2)

Disadvantages:

  • Unfamiliar with organization.

  • Unfamiliar with culture, communication networks, and power systems.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Internal Practitioner (part 1 of 3)

Member of organization who can be:

  • A top executive.

  • Employee who initiates change in work group.

  • From human resources or OD department.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Internal Practitioner (part 2 of 3)

Advantages:

  • Familiar with culture and norms.

  • Knows power structure.

  • Personal interest in organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Internal Practitioner (part 3 of 3)

Disadvantages:

  • May lack specialized skills.

  • Lack of objectivity.

  • Likely to accept organizational system.

  • May lack necessary power and authority.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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External-Internal Practitioner Team(part 1 of 3)

Team combines external practitioner working with internal practitioner.

Probably most effective approach.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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External-Internal Practitioner Team(part 2 of 3)

Partners bring complementary resources.

External practitioner brings expertise, objectivity, and new insights.

Internal practitioner brings knowledge of issues and norms, and awareness of strengths and weaknesses.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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External-Internal Practitioner Team(part 3 of 3)

Provides support to one another.

Achieve greater continuity over OD program.

Team combines advantages of both while minimizing disadvantages.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Our Changing World:One Country’s Resistance to Consulting Grows (part 1 of 2)

Management consulting in Germany with public-sector causes a political fight.

Involves U.S. and German management firms.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Our Changing World:One Country’s Resistance to Consulting Grows (part 2 of 2)

Contracts legal but effectiveness questioned.

Occurring when German economy in poor state.

Management consulting new to public sector.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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OD Practitioner Styles

Practitioners have variety of styles.

View styles as degree of emphasis placed upon 2 dimensions:

  • Effectiveness - degree of emphasis upon goal accomplishment.

  • Morale - degree of emphasis upon relationships and participant satisfaction.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Stabilizer style

Cheerleader style

Analyzer style

Persuader style

Pathfinder style

Five Practitioner Styles (part 1 of 6)

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Five Practitioner Styles (part 2 of 6)

Stabilizer Style

Maintains low profile.

Tries to survive by following directives.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Five Practitioner Styles (part 3 of 6)

Cheerleader Style

Places emphasis on member satisfaction.

Does not emphasize organization effectiveness.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Five Practitioner Styles (part 4 of 6)

Analyzer Style

Places emphasis on efficiency.

Little attention to satisfaction of members.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Five Practitioner Styles (part 5 of 6)

Persuader Style

Seeks compromise between cheerleader and analyzer styles.

Achieves average performance.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Five Practitioner Styles (part 6 of 6)

Pathfinder Style

Seeks high organization efficiency and high member satisfaction.

Desired style for OD practitioner.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Communication.

Member roles in groups.

Group problem-solving.

Group norms and growth.

Leadership and authority.

Intergroup cooperation.

Pathfinder Practitioner Focuses on Six Processes:

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 4.1Practitioner Styles

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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OD in Practice:Bain & Co. (part 1 of 2)

Bain one of largest consulting firms.

30+ years old, offices in 19+ countries.

Clients include governments, businesses, and nonprofit organizations.

Known for shrewd, suave people it employs.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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OD in Practice:Bain & Co. (part 2 of 2)

Employees secretive about Bain and clients.

Builds close relationship with clients.

Works directly with chief executive.

Focuses on total system.

Works collaboratively with clients.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Readiness of Organization for OD

Key personnel first decide if change needed.

Learning goals of OD appropriate?

Cultural state of client ready for OD?

Key people involved?

Members prepared and oriented to OD?

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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The Intervention

Intervention is coming between members of organization for purpose of change.

Planned activities.

External practitioner usually intervenes through top manager.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Who Is Client?

Who client is becomes complex as practitioner intervenes.

Client may be organization, certain divisions, or an individual.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Practitioner Role in Intervention

Operates on belief that team is basic building block.

Concerned with how processes occur.

Believes that assisting client, not taking control, will lead to lasting solution.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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OD Practitioner Skills and Activities

Team development.

Corporate change.

Strategy development.

Management development.

Employee development.

Technology integration.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Table 4.1OD Practitioner Skills and Activities

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Leadership.

Project management.

Communication.

Problem-solving.

Interpersonal.

Personal.

Six Key Skill Areas Critical to Success of Practitioner

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 4.2Practitioner Skills Profile

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Forming Practitioner-Client Relationship

A system of interacting elements.

Consists of:

  • Practitioner.

  • Client contact.

  • Client target system.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 4.3System’s View of Change Relationship

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Initial Perceptions

Initial intervention an evaluation by client and practitioner of each other.

First impressions important.

Relationship based on mutual trust and openness.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Concepts of Perception

Process whereby individuals give meaning to environment by interpreting and organizing sensory impressions.

People behave on basis of what is perceived versus what really is.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Perception

The process individuals use to interpret and organize sensory impressions.

What one perceives can be different from reality.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Selective Perception

Selectivity of information that is perceived.

Process in which people tend to ignore information that conflicts with their values.

Accepts other information that agrees with their values.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Closure

Tendency of individual to fill in missing information in order to complete perception.

A person perceives more in the situation than is really there.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 4.4Perception Formation and Effect on Relationships

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Dilemma Interactions Include:

  • Questions about client’s definition of problem.

  • Client’s awareness of need for change.

  • Client’s unrealistic expectations.

  • Client’s misuse of power.

  • Value differences with client and practitioner.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Practitioner Style Model

Practitioner brings knowledge, skills, values, and experience.

Client system has own subculture and readiness for change.

Together determine practitioner’s style and approaches.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 4.5Practitioner Style Model

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Developing Trust Relationship

Openness and trust between practitioner and client essential.

Basic responses to build trust:

  • Questions.

  • Advising.

  • Reflection.

  • Interpretation.

  • Self-disclosure.

  • Silence.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Creating Climate for Change

Practitioner “practice what he or she preaches.”

Create climate of openness, authenticity, and trust.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 1 of 5)

  • Apathetic

  • Gamesmanship

  • Charismatic

  • Consensus

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 2 of 5)

Apathetic Mode

Keeps quiet about true ideas with practitioner.

Skeptical about change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 3 of 5)

Gamesmanship Mode

Keeps quiet about true ideas with practitioner.

Manipulates strategic factors.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 4 of 5)

Charismatic Mode

View of changes taken from leaders’ cues.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes (part 5 of 5)

Consensus Mode

Both client and practitioner share perceptions.

Differences are worked through.

OD practitioner attempts to operate from this mode.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 4.6Four Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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The Formalization of Operating Ground Rules

Formalization of obligations in contract advisable for external practitioner.

Internal practitioner does not need contract, but ground rules should be formalized.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Point of contact.

Role of practitioner.

Fees.

Schedule.

Anticipated results.

Operating ground rules.

Contract with External Practitioner Specifies Items

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Red Flags in Practitioner-Client Relationship

Level of commitment to change of client.

Degree of power to influence change.

Client’s manipulative use of practitioner power.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Key Words and Concepts

  • Analyzer style - high on effectiveness, low on morale.

  • Apathetic mode - follows established routine, avoids responsibility.

  • Charismatic mode - relies on leaders to determine if change desirable.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • Cheerleader style - high on morale, low on effectiveness.

  • Client sponsor - person or group within organization that requested practitioner’s help.

  • Client target system - organization needing help in change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • Closure – tendency to fill in missing information to complete perception.

  • Consensus mode - decisions made through sharing viewpoints.

  • Dilemma interactions - result from questions from practitioner regarding client’s problem definition and value differences.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • External-internal team - change agents from outside and inside organization.

  • External practitioner - change agent from outside organization.

  • Gamesmanship mode - sees life as if playing a game and goal is to win.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • Internal practitioner - change agent from within organization.

  • Interpretation - responses used by practitioner to explain something in terms client can understand.

  • Intervention - entrance into client system and includes variety of roles and activities.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • OD practitioner - change agent or person helping client to adapt and plan change.

  • Operating ground rules - can include point of contact, confidentiality, requirements from organization, and other items.

  • Pathfinder style - high on effectiveness, high on morale.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • Perception - process individuals use to give meaning to environment by interpreting sensory impressions.

  • Persuader style - moderate emphasis on morale and effectiveness.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • Selective perception - selectivity of information that is perceived.

  • Stabilizer style - low on effectiveness, low on morale.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Preparations for Next Chapter

  • Read Chapter 5.

  • Prepare for OD Skills Simulation 5.1.

  • Read and analyze Case: The Old Family Bank.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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