Philosophy the passion to understand
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Philosophy: The Passion to Understand Chapter 9 Philosophy A passion to understand, a love of wisdom…conveying information is not as important as helping others in their search for wisdom The Branches of Philosophy

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Philosophy

  • A passion to understand, a love of wisdom…conveying information is not as important as helping others in their search for wisdom


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The Branches of Philosophy

  • Metaphysics…an area of philosophy that deals with questions about the nature of ultimate reality… a search for order and wholeness, is human nature physical or spiritual… ultimate questions about persons and about the universe


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Epistemology and Axiology

  • Epistemology: An area of philosophy that examines questions about how and what we know…what knowledge is true…is there a difference between knowledge and belief?

  • Axiology: An area of philosophy that deals with the nature of values…the nature of the good and the beautiful. Ethics is concerned with moral values and conduct; Aesthetics is concerned with the theory of beauty


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Thinking as a Philosopher

  • Abstraction and Precision…this tension is at the heart of the philosopher’s task

  • Analytic thinking…a thinking strategy that focuses on questions of the “what seems to be” type; includes abstractions, imagination, generalization, and logic

  • Prophetic thinking…a thinking strategy that focuses on questions of the “what ought to be” type; includes discernment, connection, tracking hypocrisy, and hope


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Logic

  • Deals with the nature of reasoning…logic examines the principles that allow us to move from one argument to the next

  • Deduction…the type of reasoning that moves from a general statement to a specific conclusion

  • Induction…the type of reasoning that moves from the particular instance to a general conclusion


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Prophetic Ways of Thinking

  • Seeks to uncover multiple, even divergent realities or principles…four components of prophetic thinking: discernment, connection, tracking hypocrisy, and hope

  • Discernment…develop a vision of what should be Connection…relate and show empathy to others Tracking Hypocrisy…what is the gap between principles and practice Hope…the world can change for the better


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Schools of Philosophy and their Influence on Education

  • Idealism…ideas are the only true reality, the material world is characterized by constant change and uncertainty…the power of reason is emphasized and the scientific method and sense perception are deemphasized

  • Plato, Socrates…dialogue

  • Kant…a priori and a posteriori

  • Jane Roland Martin…continuing conversation and the female voice


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Realism

  • Reality, knowledge, and value exist independent of the human mind

  • Aristotle…one can acquire knowledge of ideas or forms by investigating matter

  • John Locke…distinguished between sense data and the objects they represent

  • Alfred North Whitehead…attempted to reconcile aspects of idealism and realism… “process” is the central aspect of realism


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Pragmatism

  • An open universe that is dynamic, evolving, and in a state of becoming…process philosophy…truth is what works

  • Charles Sanders Peirce…belief is a habit of action undertaken to overcome indecisiveness

  • John Dewey…life is a series of overlapping and interpenetrating experiences and situations…the primary unit of life is the individual experience

  • Richard Rorty…reality is not fixed, thinkers must describe the nature of the real


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Existentialism

  • Reality is lived existence and final reality resides within the individual…the only certainty is that we are free…we are what we choose

  • Sartre…existence precedes essence

  • Nietzsche…indicts the supremacy of herd values, capitalistic greed

  • Maxine Greene…unyielding faith in human beings’ willingness to build and transcend their lived worlds…living is philosophy


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Eastern Ways of Knowing

  • Platonic philosophy influenced by Eastern emphasis on the illusory quality of the physical world

  • Eastern ways of knowing stress the inner world, intuition rather than sense, mysticism rather than scientific discoveries

  • Indian thought and Chinese thought focus on harmony with ultimate reality

  • Japanese thought tied to Shintoism, recognizing the significance of nature


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Native North American Ways of Knowing

  • 400 plus different groups of Native peoples in North America

  • Reverence for nature, human responsibility, the importance of oral history and the role of elders


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