1. AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Prof. Andrzej Kokoszka
II Department of Psychiatry
Medical University of Warszaw
3. MEANING OF THE „PSYCHOPATHOLOGY” NOTION
Psychopathology is a branch of science focused on the disorders of mental functions. Its relation to psychology is analogical to the relation of human pathophysiology to physiology.
4. MEANING OF THE „PSYCHOPATHOLOGY” NOTION „Term psychopathology, means usually the same as psychiatry, i.e., science about mental illnesses. Mostly is usually used to denote science, that subject is psychiatric symptomatology and its relations with normal psychology”
5. MEANING OF THE „PSYCHOPATHOLOGY” NOTION „Psychopathology is a branch of knowledge that includes description, interpretation, explanation and classification of those, particular mental phenomena that have, clinical meaning, i.e., that perception, analysis and assessment are useful in diagnostic and therapeutic management with persons with mental disorders. From the nozographic point of view they always belong to the domain of mental disorders. From the normative point of view those phenomena are considered as abnormal.”
6. MEANING OF THE „PSYCHOPATHOLOGY” NOTION Psychopathology originated as a branch of medicine, more specifically, of psychiatry.
Psychopathology reflects traditional interests of physicians in complains and symptoms of persons suffering from an illness.
7. MEANING OF THE „PSYCHOPATHOLOGY” NOTION Abnormal psychology deals with the similar range of phenomena as psychopathology, however, it describes and interprets mental disorders from the point of view of knowledge about normal mental functions (of psychology). Such a knowledge is helpful and useful but not necessary.
8. MEANING OF THE „PSYCHOPATHOLOGY” NOTION „For a psychiatrist a patient’s experiences and ways of behavior are the same fact as observed physical phenomena for a physicist. Analogically, like any scientist of any branch of science a psychiatrist tries to describes facts of a psychiatric domain, make and order in them, classify and name them. In the next steps a psychiatrist tries find an explanation of the facts and formulate cause effects relations among them. It is a domain of psychopathology.”
9. General psychopathology description of symptoms and syndromes
Symptom – word of Greek origin
„syn” – together + „piptein” – to fall (occur)
Symptom – „relatively simple disorder of a specific mental functions” Syndrome – group of symptoms related with each other
10. Detailed psychopathology criteria of classification of mental disorders
disorders – processes characterized by the specific:
11. THE MAIN CURRENT APPROACHES IN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Experimental psychopathology – includes findings of research on mechanisms of pathological states and their treatment – unfortunately, such as data are currently very limited and are not sufficient for the clinical practice.
Phenomenological psychopathology – description of symptoms occurring in a specific syndromes and disorders (disease entities) – the main basis of diagnosis and biological treatment
Psychotherapeutic psychopathology – frame of reference for psychotherapeutic treatment. The most developed is psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral psychopathology.
12. mental health is… “a state of well-being, which helps the individual to:
- realize his or her abilities,
- cope with the normal life stresses,
- work productively and fruitfully,
- make a contribution to the community”
13. mental „disorder” is… “is not an exact term but, it is used here to imply the existence of a clinically recognizable set of symptoms or behaviors associated in most cases with distress and with interference with personal functions. Social deviance or conflict alone, without personal dysfunction, should not be included in mental disorder as defined here.”
14. The main events in history Psychiatry from Greek „psyche” – soul and „jatrein” - treat
Psychiatry – the notion introduced in 1808 by Johann Christian Reidl
Beginning of scientific psychiatry French revolution, 1814 Filip Pinel – the beginning of psychopathology- mental disorders caused by organic impairment of the brain or other organs
1882 Bayle –progressive paralysis
Psychosomatic illness Christian Heinroth - (1818)
1879 Wundt – the first psychological lab
Psychosomatic medicine 1922 Felix Deutsch
15. The main events in history Beginning of XX c Freud,
Psychosurgery Monitz leukotomy, 1936, Nobel Prize1949
Ect Cerletti, Bini 1938
1952 - chlorpromazine
1957 - imipramine
1960 chlordiazepoxide (benzodiazepine)
1960 – humanistic psychology, antypsychiatry
1980- Prozac and SSRI
1990 atypical narcoleptics
16. 20th Century Model