Principles of grafting
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Principles of Grafting Terminology Scion Rootstock/Stock/Understock Scion Rooting Nurse Graft Open Ground Grafting Open Ground Budding/Bud Graft Dormant Bench Grafting Summer Bench Grafting Bottom Working Principles of Grafting Terminology (cont’d) Top-working High Working

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Principles of Grafting

  • Terminology

    • Scion

    • Rootstock/Stock/Understock

    • Scion Rooting

    • Nurse Graft

    • Open Ground Grafting

    • Open Ground Budding/Bud Graft

    • Dormant Bench Grafting

    • Summer Bench Grafting

    • Bottom Working


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Principles of Grafting

  • Terminology (cont’d)

    • Top-working

    • High Working


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Reasons for Grafting

  • Obtain special forms

  • Difficult to propagate by alternate techniques

  • Perpetuate clonal material with advantages over seed raised stock

  • Reduce cropping time to maturity


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Reasons for Grafting

  • Obtain benefits of certain rootstocks

    • growth rates

    • resistance to diseases

    • resistance to pests

    • tolerance to different soil types

  • Encourage earlier flowering

  • Production of ‘Plus Trees’

  • Production of novelty trees (forestry)*

  • Virus indexing


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Reasons for Grafting

  • Repairing damage to trees

  • Change existing cultivar on a tree

  • To produce inter-stem trees


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Limitations of Grafting

  • Additional facilities

  • skilled personnel

  • cost of purchasing rootstocks

  • Problems of incompatibility

  • Rootstocks exhibit excessive suckering

  • Possible changes in normal growth habit


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Factors Affecting a Successful Graft Union

  • Skillful operator

  • proper equipment

  • comfortable working environment

  • compatible scion and stock

  • use of virus free material

  • cambial contact

  • time of year

  • proper condition of scion/stock


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Factors (cont’d)

  • Post graft care

    • environment

    • prevent desiccation

    • prevention of pest and disease infections

    • timely removal of tie materials


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Formation of Graft Union

  • Cambiums from scion and stock placed in close proximity.

  • Intermingling of callus cells from cambiums of both tissue

  • Interlocking of callus tissues

  • Differentiation of continuous cambium tissue

  • New cambium tissue produce phloem on outside and xylem on inside.


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Graft Incompatibility

  • Partial of complete failure of the union between scion and stock

  • Success largely determined by botanical affinity


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Classification of Graft Incompatibility

  • Immediate graft incompatibility

  • Partial delayed incompatibility

  • Fully delayed incompatibility


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Symptoms of Graft Incompatibility

  • Overgrowths by rootstock/ scion

  • Low success rate of scion growth

  • Lack of overall vigor of the tree

  • Premature fall color and leaf drop

  • Excessive suckering of rootstock and dieback of scion

  • Mechanical weakness in union


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Overcoming Graft Incompatibility

  • Use correct rootstock

  • Virus free material

  • Double working

  • Technique

  • Prior knowledge/technical information