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42 Volts - Plastic in Automotive E & E Systems 10.40% 10.80% 5.80% 51.10% 31.90% Body Interior Drive Chassis E&E Use of Polymer in Cars 11.2% (142Kg) of total weight, (excluding tires). Source: BMW Trends in Automotive Technology Yesteryears Trends in Automotive Technology Today

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Use of polymer in cars l.jpg

10.40%

10.80%

5.80%

51.10%

31.90%

Body

Interior

Drive

Chassis

E&E

Use of Polymer in Cars

11.2% (142Kg) of total weight, (excluding tires).

Source: BMW





Trends in automotive technology6 l.jpg
Trends in Automotive Technology

  • Reduce exhaust emissions.

  • Better fuel economy.

  • Improved safety.

  • Increase comfort and convenience.


Trends in automotive technology7 l.jpg
Trends in Automotive Technology

European Union Directive 2000/53/EC

“End of Life Vehicle”


Trends in automotive technology8 l.jpg
Trends in Automotive Technology

8 to 9 million tonnes of waste every year.

  • Design and Manufacture for reuse, recycling and recovery.

  • Reduction and control of Hazardous substances.


Idle stop air conditioning l.jpg
Idle-Stop Air Conditioning

  • First justification for 42 Volts.

  • Car makers are unanimous.

  • Today’s batteries (14 Volts) cannot supply the energy.


Impact on some applications l.jpg
Impact on some applications?

  • Integrated Starter Alternator.

  • Proliferation of Electric Motors and Actuators.

  • Electric Water Pumps/Systems.

  • A completely new air conditioning system.

  • More Solenoids, Sensors, etc.

  • Higher requirements for Connectors, Switches.

  • Integrated Control Modules.


Trends in automotive technology11 l.jpg
Trends in Automotive Technology

All trends require more electrical power

(Battery from 2kW to 6kW and beyond ?)

Increase in power require more voltage

Hence 42 Volts


Impact on plastics l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

Noticeable shift from:

  • Thermosets to Thermoplastics.

  • Amorphous to Crystalline polymers.

  • Moderate to High temperature materials.

  • Approx. 25% increase in volume of Plastics.


Impact on plastics13 l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

  • Higher temperature performance

Miniaturisation of components

Higher power and higher temperature

requirements

Increase in ambient temperatures


Heat deflection temperature l.jpg
Heat Deflection Temperature

Weight

Thermometer

Heating Solution

Test Bar


Heat deflection temperature15 l.jpg
Heat Deflection Temperature

Gives an indication on the Maximum short term temperature a polymer can withstand under load.


Beware l.jpg
Beware!

Crastin* S600F10 (Unreinforced PBT)

HDT @0.45MPa 160 0C

HDT @1.8MPa 60 0C

Crastin* SK605 (30% Glass Fibre PBT)

HDT @0.45MPa 220 0C

HDT @1.8MPa 205 0C

HDT @5.0MPa 180 0C


Slide17 l.jpg

RelativeTemperature Index

Gives an indication of the long term temperature behaviour of a Plastic in respect to their;

Electrical properties

Mechanical properties with impact

Mechanical properties without impact


Slide18 l.jpg
RTI

Temperature at which after 60,000 hours (7 years) the properties drops to 50% of it’s initial value.


Slide19 l.jpg
RTI

Zenite* 7130 Black (30% Glass Fibre LCP), @1.5 mm wall section.

Electrical properties 240 0C

Mechanical properties with impact 210 0C

Mechanical properties without impact 240 0C


Slide20 l.jpg

Beware

HDT  RTI

Zytel* 101L (Nylon 6.6)

HDT @ 0.45MPa 2000C

RTI W/O Imp. 850C


A rough guide l.jpg

PEEK

Zenite* LCP

Vespel* PI

Ryton* PPS

Phenolic

PEI

Xtel* PPS/PA

Zytel* HTN PPA

Rynite* PET

PA 4/6

Crastin* PBT

A Rough Guide


Impact on plastics22 l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

  • Higher temperature performance

  • Higher arc resistance

Fuses, switches, relays, connectors

(connection & disconnection under

load).


Impact on plastics23 l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

  • Higher temperature performance

  • Higher arc resistance

High amperage arc resistance (HAI) - Simulates

an arc occurs between two electrodes, under low

voltage but a high current, e.g. the connector pins

of a plug.

Or

High voltage, low current, dry arc resistance -

Simulates a conductive path, subject to high

voltage between two electrodes, e.g. high voltage

conductors separated by a insulator.


Impact on plastics24 l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

  • Higher temperature performance

  • Higher arc resistance

  • Higher track resistance


Slide25 l.jpg
CTI

The relative resistance of a material to tracking for voltage up to 600V, when the surface is exposed under electric stress to water with the addition of contaminants.


Impact on plastics26 l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

  • Higher temperature performance

  • Higher arc resistance

  • Higher track resistance

  • Flame retardant resins

Wiring insulation, connectors


Slide27 l.jpg

25.4mm

76.2mm

25.4mm

SPECIMEN

WIREGAUZE

450

UL94 Flammability

The HB rating is given if the burn rate, measured between the 2 marks,

does not exceed:

38,1 mm / min for 3,2 mm test bar thickness

63,5 mm / min for < 3,2 mm test bar thickness if the test bar stops burning

before reaching the 100 mm mark.


Slide28 l.jpg

Classification: UL

V-0 V-1 V-2

No of flame applications 2x10 s 2x10 s 2x10s

Significance:

Max burning time single

specimen <10 s <30 s <30 s

Max burning time 5

specimens <50 s <250 s <250s

Dripping ignition of cotton no no yes

Afterglow <30 s <60 s <60 s

Afterglow ignition of cotton none none yes

UL94 Flammability

12,7

127 mm

SPECIMEN

9.5 mm

305 mm


Slide29 l.jpg

UL94 Flammability

5VA classification (bars & plaques)

1. No flaming or glowing - 60 s after

last flame application.

2. No ignition of the cotton by

dripping particles.

3. No holes in plaques.

A one time re-testing of a set of test

specimens is allowed if only 1 test bar

fails.

Specimen

Overall height

of flame

200

Inner

blue cone


Impact on plastics30 l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

  • Higher temperature performance

  • Higher arc resistance

  • Higher track resistance

  • Flame retardant resins

  • Glow wire

  • EMI Shielding

  • Electrical/Heat conductivity

Electronic control modules, wireless sensors,

pump housings/impellers


Impact on plastics31 l.jpg
Impact on Plastics?

  • Higher temperature performance

  • Higher arc resistance

  • Higher track resistance

  • Flame retardant resins

  • Glow wire

  • EMI Shielding

  • Electrical/Heat conductivity

Higher frequency and/or higher power devices,

creates more EM radiation




Semi conductive polymers l.jpg
Semi-conductive polymers

  • RTP ESD-C-1000; PBT Surface resistivity <106 ohms/sq Volume resistivity <103 ohm-cm

  • Delrin* 300AS; Acetal with Carbon fibre Surface resistivity 103 ohm/sq Volume resistivity 103 ohm-cm

  • Zytel* CDV 595; Nylon 6.6 Surface resistivity 103 ohm/sq Volume resistivity 103 ohm-cm

  • Zytel* EMX 503; FR-Nylon

    Surface resistivity 1ohm/sq

    Volume resistivity 102 ohm-cm

  • RTP EMI-261H; Nylon 6.6 with stainless steel Surface resistivity 105 ohms/sq Volume resistivity 1.0 ohm-cm