Bioremediation of organochlorine solvents in groundwater
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Bioremediation of Organochlorine Solvents in Groundwater. Institute of Technology, Sligo Department of Environmental Science and Technology By: Leif Barry Edel Kilgallon Breda King Subject: Waste Management Lecturer: Dr. Michael Broaders. INTRODUCTION Organochlorine Compounds.

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Bioremediation of organochlorine solvents in groundwater

Bioremediation of Organochlorine Solvents in Groundwater

Institute of Technology, Sligo

Department of Environmental Science and Technology

By:

Leif Barry

Edel Kilgallon

Breda King

Subject: Waste Management

Lecturer: Dr. Michael Broaders


Introduction organochlorine compounds
INTRODUCTIONOrganochlorine Compounds

  • Toxaphene

  • Endrin

  • Dieldrin

  • Aldrin

  • Endosulfan

  • Chlordane

  • Heptachlor

  • Dichlodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)

    All have been manufactured since the 1940s for use as pesticides. They are not safe for household application. They persist in the environment long after initial use.


What are chlorinated solvents

What are Chlorinated Solvents

Chlorinated solvents and their natural transformation products are the most prevalent organic groundwater contaminants.

Consisting of chlorinated alphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) have been used for:

Degreasing aircraft engines

Automoible parts

Electronic components

Dry cleaning clothes


Examples of organochlorine solvents
Examples of Organochlorine Solvents

  • trichloroethylene (TCE)

  • 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA)

  • Perchloroethylene (PERC)

    tetrachloroethane is a manufactured chemical that is widely used in the dry cleaning of fabrics,including clothes. tetrachloroethane is found in consumer products including some paints and spot removers, water repellents, brake and wood cleaners, glues and suede protectors.


Other names for tetrachloroethane include perchloroethylene (PERC) and tetrachloroethylene.

In the USA, EPA studies showed that people who wear freshly dry cleaned clothes, such as a jacket and shirt, every week over a 40 year period could inhale enough PERC to measurably increase their risk of cancer by as much as 150 times.


The major sources of pollution by organochlorine solvents to groundwater
The major sources of pollution by organochlorine solvents to groundwater

  • Landfills

  • Leaking tanks/pipes

  • Spillages

  • Soakaway drainage

  • Lagoons

  • Well injection

  • Sewage landspreading/infiltration and leakage from other aquifers


Minor sources of pollution by organochlorine solvent to groundwater
Minor sources of pollution by organochlorine solvent to groundwater

  • Surface water

  • Irrigation

  • rainfall


Organochlorine solvents discharged in sufficient quantities may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

This is because of the

Low solubility of the solvents

And their different characteristics they are:

Denser and

Less viscous

Than water

An aquifer may remain contaminated for hundreds or thousands of years.

Due to low guideline values it may only take a few litres of solvent to contaminat millions of gallons of groundwater.


Who guidelines for chlorinated solvents in drinking water
WHO Guidelines for chlorinated solvents in drinking water may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

Contaminant Guideline value (mg/l)

1,2- dichloroethane 10

1,1- dichloroethane 0.3

Chloroform 30


Goundwater supply of drinking water

Goundwater Supply of Drinking Water may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

Ireland 11%

Germany 25%

USA 50%


Limits for drinking water
Limits for Drinking Water may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • WHO guidelines for chlorinated solvents in drinking waterContaminant.

    Guideline value (ug/l)1,2-

  • dichloroethane 101,1-

  • dichloroethene 0.3

  • chloroform 30

    Tentative guideline values:

  • Carbon tetrachloride 3.0

  • tetrachlorethene 10.0

  • trichlorethene 30.0


Pathway of exposure
Pathway of Exposure may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Inhalation

  • Swallowing

  • through the skin.


Health effects
Health Effects may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Acute

  • Generally last only minutes, hours or days

  • Are reversible once the exposure is over.

  • They are more easily identified.

    Common acute effects from solvent exposure include:


  • Respiratory Irritation may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Eye Irritation.

  • Dermatitis.

  • CNS Depression.

  • Heart Arrhythmia


Chronic effects
Chronic Effects may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • occur after repeated exposures

  • are often long-lasting

  • irreversible.

  • Symptoms may appear gradually, so they may be initially ignored. This can make it hard to identify the chronic health problems related to solvent exposure.


Chronic health effects include
Chronic health effects include may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.:

  • Respiratory Effects.

  • Dermatitis

  • Nervous System.

  • Liver Damage

  • Blood

  • Reproductive Effects

  • Cancer


Effects depends on serval factor
Effects depends on serval factor may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • how easily the solvent evaporates at the ambient temperature? 

  • what are the characteristics of that solvent; is it water soluble or able to dissolve fats? 

  • what is the concentration of the solvent in the air at the place of work? 

  • what type of work is involved, light or heavy? (Panting increases the amount inhaled.)

  • how long does the exposure last? 


Prevention control
Prevention & Control may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • SOLVENT SELECTION

  • TRAINING

  • CONTAINERS

  • GLOVES, GOGGLES

  • AIR CONTAMINATION

  • DOCUMENTATION


Case study
Case study may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.


What is bioremediation
What is Bioremediation? may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • The term bioremediation is applied to any system or process in which biological methods are used to transform or immobilize contaminants in soil or groundwater.


How does it work
How does it work? may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

The right temperature, nutrients, and amount of oxygen must be present in the soil and groundwater.

  • These conditions allow the microbes to grow and multiply and eat more chemicals.

  • Drill wells and pump some of the groundwater into tanks. Here, the water is mixed with nutrients and air before it is pumped back.

  • Groundwater can also be mixed underground by pumping nutrients and air into the wells.


There are two types of bioremediation
There are two types of Bioremediation. may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Ex-Situ Bioremediation

  • In-Situ Bioremediation


Ex situ bioremediation
Ex-situ Bioremediation may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Pump and Treat

  • This is the most commonly used technology for contaminated groundwater.

  • Now used to contain contaminated material rather than to remediate it.


In situ bioremediation
In-situ Bioremediation may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Percolation

  • Pump, treat and reinject

  • Injection wells

  • Hydrogen peroxide injection

  • Air sparging


Cometabolism
Cometabolism may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Most studies on biodegradation of chlorinated solvents have focused on using aerobic microbial metabolism

  • An exception

  • Cometabolism with another substance


Synergism
Synergism may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Many biodegradations require the cooperation of more than a single species of microbe

  • Two or more species of microbes carry out a transformation that one alone could not

  • Some reactions take place in mixtures of species but not in pure culture or take place more readily in multi-species associations

  • Pseudomonas spp.


Treatment walls
Treatment Walls may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Involves installing a permeable wall

  • It consists of an excavated ditch


Disadvantages of in situ treatment
Disadvantages of In-Situ treatment may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Ineffective at contaminated sites where conditions are unfavourable

  • Longer treatment times

  • Nature of contaminant distribution


Advantages of in situ treatment
Advantages of In-Situ Treatment may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • More cost effective

  • Little disruption to site processes

  • No need for large treatment areas

  • It minimises exposure to humans and the environment to contaminants


Conclusion
Conclusion may form an immiscible layer separate from the main body of water.

  • Bioremediation is by far one of the most innovative technologies to be employed by man/woman for remediation of contaminated groundwater

  • There is a lot yet to be learned and understood about bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

  • This is a remarkable and true story of a David and Goliath battle


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