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Great Society refresher. ___ Medicaid ___ Great Society ___ Elementary and Secondary Education Act ___ Volunteers in Service to America ( AmeriCorps ) ___ Medicare ___ War on Poverty ___ Corporation for Public Broadcasting National health insurance program for people over age 65

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slide1

Great Society refresher

  • ___ Medicaid
  • ___ Great Society
  • ___ Elementary and Secondary Education Act
  • ___ Volunteers in Service to America (AmeriCorps)
  • ___ Medicare
  • ___ War on Poverty
  • ___ Corporation for Public Broadcasting
  • National health insurance program for people over age 65
  • Like a 2nd New Deal
  • Provided $1.3 billion to schools in poor areas
  • Free health care for the needy
  • A domestic version of the Peace Corps
  • Produced educational television programming
  • Johnson’s plan to help the poor of America
  • Large # of reforms to improve America
use the twitter or facebook format to do the following
Use the Twitter OR Facebook format to do the following
  • Show me you understand these events (e.g. what happened when and where, their impact/effects, if and how they’re connected, etc.):
    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • Little Rock Nine
  • Complete a draft for Tuesday
warm up discuss answers use notes
Warm-up: Discuss answers. Use notes.
  • T/F: Brown v. Board made all segregation illegal in America.
  • How were the Little Rock Nine like Jackie Robinson?
  • What is a boycott? Why did African Americans boycott the bus company in Montgomery, Alabama? How did it end?
jot down ideas
Jot down ideas
  • What are some ways to create change when most of the people around you want things to stay the same?
  • When you’re finished, write the following in your notes section:

Unit: The 1960s

LT 2: Civil Rights

Nonviolent Resistance

objective explain nonviolent resistance and how it is used by the civil rights movement
Objective: Explain nonviolent resistance and how it is used by the civil rights movement

Take any notes that will help you to meet this objective

the 1960s

The 1960s

Today’s episode:

“Standing Up for Your Rights May Not Require Standing Up at All”

LT 2:

Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

african americans in america
African Americans in America

Year # of People % of Population

1900 8.8 million 11.6%

1910 9.8 million 10.7%

1920 10.5 million 9.9%

1930 11.9 million 9.7%

1940 12.9 million 9.8%

1950 15.0 million10.0%

1960 18.9 million10.5%

1970 22.6 million11.1%

1980 26.5 million 11.7%

1990 30.0 million 12.1%

2000 36.6 million 12.3%

2009 38.1 million 12.4%

the problem in the spring of 1963
The problem: In the spring of 1963…
  • Unemployment rate
    • Whites: 4.8%
    • Nonwhites: 12.1%(2.5x higher)
  • Living below the poverty line (gov’t estimate)
    • Whites: 20%
    • Blacks: 50%
nonviolent or passive resistance
Nonviolent (or passive) resistance:

passive is the opposite of active

  • Protest strategy involving peaceful demonstrations and no violence
  • Goal: get sympathy of whites (how?)
three nonviolent civil rights groups
Three nonviolent civil rights groups
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    • MLK Jr.’s group
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    • Group of Southern student activists (people who act to support a cause)
    • Organize sit-ins
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    • Northern civil rights group
    • Organize Freedom Rides
the strategy non violence 5 min
The strategy: non-violence(5 min)

Would you be able to do what they did?

why nonviolence king explains
Why nonviolence? King explains
  • “Violence as a way of achieving racial justice is both impractical (unrealistic) and immoral (morally wrong). It is impractical because it is a descending spiral ending in destruction for all. It is immoral because it seeks to humiliate the opponent rather than win his understanding; it seeks to annihilate rather than to convert. Violence is immoral because it thrives on hatred rather than love.”—MLK, Jr.

If you were in the position of

African Americans in the 1960s,

would you buy this?

discuss
Discuss
  • Could you use nonviolent resistance? Do you agree with the message behind it?
    • Keep in mind the things you’d be facing in the South as well as the goal of nonviolent resistance
slide14

What do you think a sit-in is?

Can you think of a fairly recent example of a nationwide sit-in?

sit ins
Sit-ins
  • Non-violent protest strategy involving sitting in an area and refusing to leave in order to create change
  • Mostly run by students(SNCC)
  • Effective- lead to desegregation of many restaurants
sit in rules
Sit-in rules
  • “Don’t strike back if cursed or abused.
  • Don’t laugh out.
  • Don’t hold conversations with your fellow workers.
  • Don’t leave your seats until your leader has given you instructions to do so.
  • Don’t block entrances to the stores and the aisles.
  • Show yourself courteous and friendly at all times.
  • Sit straight and always face the counter.
  • Report all serious incidents to your leader.
  • Refer all information to your leader in a polite manner.
  • Remember love and nonviolence.”
the 1960s1

The 1960s

Today’s episode:

Taking the Initiative

LT 2:

Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

warm up discuss using notes if necessary
Warm-up: discuss using notes if necessary
  • T/F: The Montgomery Bus Boycott helped reduce the fear of standing up to those in power.
  • What is nonviolent resistance? What is its goal and how is it supposed to achieve that goal?
  • What do the SCLC, SNCC, and CORE, each stand for and what do they have in common?
  • What is a sit-in?
sit in rules1
Sit-in rules
  • “Don’t strike back if cursed or abused.
  • Don’t laugh out.
  • Don’t hold conversations with your fellow workers.
  • Don’t leave your seats until your leader has given you instructions to do so.
  • Don’t block entrances to the stores and the aisles.
  • Show yourself courteous and friendly at all times.
  • Sit straight and always face the counter.
  • Report all serious incidents to your leader.
  • Refer all information to your leader in a polite manner.
  • Remember love and nonviolence.”
the effect of the sit ins
The effect of the sit-ins
  • Bob Moses, an African American, on seeing a photo in the newspaper of the Greensboro sit-in:
    • “The students in that picture had a certain look on their faces, sort of sullen, angry, determined. Before, the Negro in the South had always looked on the defensive, cringing. This time they were taking the initiative. They were kids my age, and I knew this had something to do with my own life.”
the sit ins spread
The sit-ins spread
  • W/in two weeks, sit-ins spread to 15 cities in 5 southern states
  • W/in 12 months, over 50,000 people participate in protests in 100 cities
the greensboro sit in 4 40
The Greensboro sit-in (4:40)

Lost and Found (6:12)

closure
Closure

Down the aisle

the 1960s2

The 1960s

Today’s episode:

Violence=Progress

LT 2:

Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

warm up discuss with the person closest to you
Warm-up: discuss with the person closest to you
  • What was the goal of nonviolent or passive resistance?
  • What is a sit-in?
  • What happened at a Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC, and what was the effect?
freedom rides 1961
Freedom Rides (1961)
  • Background info
    • December 1960: Supreme Court rules that segregation in places serving interstate travelers (people traveling between states), e.g. bus stations, is illegal
  • Freedom Riders: groups of blacks and whites who go on bus trips through South to draw attention to violations of the Supreme Court’s decision
american experience freedom riders
American Experience: Freedom Riders

Notes: What happens in Birmingham and Mississippi?

the 1960s3

The 1960s

Today’s episode:Violence=Progress

LT 2:

Civil and Constitutional Rights

warm up discuss
Warm-up: discuss
  • T/F: The Montgomery Bus Boycott, sit-ins, and freedom rides, are all examples of effective nonviolent resistance.
  • What is the significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Woolworth sit-in? In other words, what impact do they have on the civil rights movement?
  • What are the freedom rides? What’s the point? What happens when the riders get to Birmingham, Alabama?
american experience freedom riders1
American Experience: Freedom Riders

Notes: What happens in Birmingham and Mississippi?

freedom rides1
Freedom Rides
  • Effect:
    • Bus desegregation is finally enforced
    • Success inspires many to actively participate in civil rights movement

“Black folks always lived in fear of white folks. And now they’re seeing young people defying white people. And so we helped to get rid of that impotence.”

failed protest in albany georgia 1961
Failed Protest in Albany, Georgia, 1961

“Protest becomes an effective tactic to the degree that it [brings forth] brutality and oppression from the power structure.”

—Bayard Rustin, civil rights activist

If this is true, then what should the activists do?

into the lion s den
Into the lion’s den…

“The worst city for race in the whole United States”

why go to birmingham
Why go to Birmingham?

“As for [police chief] Bull Connor and the City of Birmingham, it was true that they constituted the hardest and most mean-spirited establishment in the South. Yet if we beat them on their own home grounds, we might be able to prove to the entire region that it was useless to resist desegregation, that its time had finally come. To win in Birmingham might well be to win in the rest of the nation. So in the long run the gamble [of confronting violence in Birmingham] might actually save time and lives in our struggle for equality.”

—Ralph Abernathy, civil rights activist

birmingham protest april may 1963
Birmingham protest April-May 1963
  • As weeks go by, number of protesters declines
  • To save the protest, leaders suggest using schoolchildren
    • “A boy from high school, he can get the same effect in terms of being in jail, in terms of putting pressure on the city, as his father—and yet there is no economic threat on the family because the father is still on the job.”

—James Bevel, civil rights activist

jfk to congress june 11 1963
JFK to Congress, June 11, 1963

“One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs, their grandsons, are not fully free….

Are we to say…that this is the land of the free, except for Negroes, that we have no second-class citizens, except Negroes…? Now the time has come for the nation to fulfill its promise…

Those who do nothing are inviting shame as well as violence. Those who act boldly are recognizing right as well as reality…”

—JFK, announcing that he will be

proposing a civil rights law to Congress

slide56

BIRMINGHAM protest

  • Police use violence, protesters gain support. Protest succeeds.
  • ALBANY protest
  • Police don’t use violence. Protest fails.

Protesters were arrested

  • Lesson of the Albany and Birmingham protests: Civil rights progress only happens when peaceful protests are met with violence
the 1960s4

The 1960s

Today’s episode:

Toilet Paper and Newspaper Margins

LT 2:

Civil Rights and Constitutional Rights

warm up discuss1
Warm-up: discuss
  • What impact does the Montgomery Bus Boycott, sit-ins, and freedom rides, have on the civil rights movement?
  • Explain how the civil rights movement shifts from activism in the courts to activism in the streets
  • Explain “violence = progress” andconnect the Children’s March to JFK
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