Chapter 8 confederation to constitution
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Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution. The chapter describes the development of the US government from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution. It focuses on the debate between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists over ratification and a Bill of Rights.

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Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution

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Chapter 8 confederation to constitution

Chapter 8Confederation to Constitution

The chapter describes the development of the US government from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution. It focuses on the debate between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists over ratification and a Bill of Rights.


Chapter 8 confederation to constitution

1777 Patriots win Battles of Saratoga. Continental Congress passes the Articles of Confederation.

1781 Articles of Confederation go into effect. British surrender at Yorktown.

1783 Treaty of Paris formally ends the Revolutionary War and recognizes the independence of the United States.

1786–1787 Daniel Shays leads a rebellion of Massachusetts farmers.

1787 Constitutional Convention is held in Philadelphia.

1789 George Washington becomes the first president of the United States.

1788 U.S. Constitution is ratified.

To World

Image

Image

1791 Bill of Rights is ratified.


Section 1

Section 1

Main Idea: The Articles of Confederation were too weak to govern the nation after the war ended.

Why It Matters: The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to the writing of the US Constitution


Articles of confederation

Articles of Confederation –

1st try at government after independence…

  • Strengths

    • Won (governed during) the American Revolution

    • Created Treaty of Paris 1783

    • Created Northwest Ordinance 1787

      • Allowed creation of new states & expansion of US

      • Native Americans were to be treated fairly and their lands were not to be taken from them


Articles of confederation1

Articles of Confederation

  • Weaknesses….

    • No chief executive or national courts (weak central government)

    • No power to settle disputes between states or make treaties.

    • No powers to tax, regulate trade, or settle disputes of land. (Only states had these powers)

    • No international credibility

    • BOTH national governments AND each state was allowed to print and coin (make) it’s own type of money!How crazy is that?


Chapter 8 confederation to constitution

Western Land Claim, 1781


Chapter 8 confederation to constitution

AOC

  • What do you think was the greatest strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and why?


Chapter 8 confederation to constitution

  • Visual Discovery

  • What is a good title?


Shays s rebellion

Shays’s Rebellion

  • Group of farmers led by Daniel Shays rebelled against government because of high debts & high state taxes.

  • Forced those in charge to look at our system of government.

  • DIRECTLY LED TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION in Philadelphia in 1787 that brought us the new Constitution of the US.


Section 2

Section 2

Main Idea: The states sent delegates to a convention to solve the problems of the Articles of Confederation.

Why It Matters: The Constitutional Convention formed the plan of government we still have today.


Super important date

SUPER IMPORTANT DATE…

  • 1787: Constitutional Convention:

    • CONSTITUTION WAS WRITTEN!!!!

    • WAS CAUSED BY SHAY’S REBELLION!!!!

    • When our Founding Fathers got together to discuss problems with the government established after we won the American Revolution

    • Instead of revising the Articles of Confederation, they ended up writing a totally new system of government, which we still use today.


Issues at the constitutional convention

Issues at the Constitutional Convention….

  • How do we create a new government?

  • We know we need a central government (also called national government) with more power and we know we need there to be 3 equal (or mostly equal) branches so that one branch doesn’t get too big.

  • The states will want to keep their powers for themselves but we saw under the Articles of Confederation that a system with TOO strong of individual states and no central power to bring them together as one, just doesn’t work.


How states will be represented in the new government

How states will be represented in the new government…..

  • Virginia Plan:

    • Big states wanted to be representedbased on population.

  • New Jersey Plan:

    • Small states (like Delaware and Maryland) wanted one house legislature whereevery state had equal representation.


How states will be represented in the new government1

How states will be represented in the new government…..

  • Great Compromise:

    • bicameral (2 house) legislature

    • In one house states are represented according to population (House of Representatives) This was modeled after the Virginia Plan.

    • In the other, all states would have equal representation (Senate). This was modeled after the New Jersey Plan.


Draw a picture illustrating the relationship between the va plan nj plan and the great comprise

Draw a picture illustrating the relationship between the Va. Plan, NJ Plan and the Great Comprise


Still more issues in 1787

Still more issues in 1787….

  • Three-Fifths Compromise

    • Determines how slaves will be counted for representation and taxes.

    • Every 5 slaves = 3 free people to be taxed & represented.

  • Trade

    • Who should regulate it?

    • NATIONAL GOVERNMENT (CONGRESS)!!!


Chapter 8 confederation to constitution

1777 Patriots win Battles of Saratoga. Continental Congress passes the Articles of Confederation.

1781 Articles of Confederation go into effect. British surrender at Yorktown.

1783 Treaty of Paris formally ends the Revolutionary War and recognizes the independence of the United States.

1786–1787 Daniel Shays leads a rebellion of Massachusetts farmers.

1787 Constitutional Convention is held in Philadelphia.

1789 George Washington becomes the first president of the United States.

1788 U.S. Constitution is ratified.

To World

Image

Image

1791 Bill of Rights is ratified.


Section 3

Section 3

Main Idea: Americans across the nation debated whether the Constitution would produce the best government

Why It Matters: American liberties today are protected by the US Constitution, including the Bill of Rights.


To ratify accept or not to ratify

To ratify (accept) or not to ratify…

  • Federalists – DEBATED FOR RATIFICATION

    • Wanted:

      • Strong Central Government

      • Powerful Executive Branch

      • To ratify the document (Constitution) AS WRITTEN

    • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay

    • Wrote and published essays called the Federalist Papers to helpsupport ratification of the constitution.


To ratify accept or not to ratify1

To ratify (accept) or not to ratify…

Anti-Federalists – AGAINST RATIFICATION

  • Wanted stronger states (state’s rights)

  • More people’s rights

  • DEMANDED BILL OF RIGHTS BE ADDED TO PROTECT PEOPLE FROM THE GOVERNMENT!!!

    • Thought the proposed constitution didn’t do enough to ensure people’s rights.

  • Patrick Henry and George Mason


Chapter 8 confederation to constitution

Federalists

Stronger national government

One person to head the executive branch

Image

What do the views of the Federalists and the Antifederalists have in common? How are they different?

Both

Different branches of the government

Supported a bill of rights

Antifederalists

Stronger state government

Feared a strong executive


Most important compromise of all

Most important compromise of all…

  • BILL OF RIGHTS

    • Anti-federalists DEMANDED the additionof thesein order to protect the American people from the government and would not ratify the Constitution until it was finished!

    • 10 amendments added to the constitution.

    • These amendments gave certain rights specifically to the people of the US and to the states.


Bill of rights

Bill of Rights…

1st: Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition.

2nd: Right to bear arms

3rd: No quartering of troops!

4th: Protects from unreasonable searches and seizures

5th: Right to due process of law and freedom from double jeopardy and self incrimination.


Bill of rights again

Bill of Rights again…

6th: Right to a speedy trial

7th: Right to a trial by jury in all civil cases

8th: No excessive bail and no cruel or unusual punishment.

9th: People have unnamed rights like the right to privacy.

10th: Individual states and the people are given powers not granted to the federal government. (SETS UP FEDERALISM)


How the grievances in the doi were addressed in the new government

How the grievances in the DOI were addressed in the new government…


7 principals of government

7 Principals of Government

  • Republicanism

    • PEOPLE ELECT REPRESENTATIVES AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS!!!

    • Form of government based on election of officials who make and enforce laws.

    • REP-rensentatives = REP-ublicanism


7 principals of government1

7 Principals of Government

  • Separation of Powers

    • Government where all jobs(Executive, Judicial, and Legislative) are all in one hand is known as TYRANNY!!!

    • Each branch has it’s own job

  • Limited Government

    • Everyone must follow the laws, even the rulers and the laws apply the same to everyone so no one can take advantage.


7 principals of government cont

7 Principals of Government cont….

  • Checks and Balances

    • Each branch has specific ways to harness the power of the other branches to make sure no one branch gets too much power.

    • President can Veto laws passed by Congress

    • Congress can override those vetoes w/ a 2/3 majority vote

    • The Supreme Court makes sure laws passed by Congress don’t go against the Constitution

    • The Senate must agree to all people appointed by the President (judges, cabinet members, etc.)


7 principals of government cont again

7 Principals of Government cont… again!

  • Popular Sovereignty

    • POWER TO GOVERN COMES FROM THE PEOPLE (consent of the governed – PEOPLE RULE!)

    • People can create, alter, or abolish government

    • POwer = POpular

  • Individual Rights

    • Unalienable rights are found in the Bill of Rights and are guaranteed to be protected from the government and by the government.

  • Federalism

    • Powers are divided between the national (central/federal) government and the states’ governments.


Amending the constitution

Amending the Constitution

Homework – Answer on Netschool

Go to page 247 in your textbook to answer the following question:

How is the process different for amending the

constitution through Congress versus the

National Convention?


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